Graduated from the Far Eastern State University Vladivostok - 1971. Ph.D. (In Russia - Candidate of Biological Sciences) degree received in 1978 at the Institute of General Genetics (Moscow) for the dissertation entitled: Population Genetics of Mussel Mollusks of the Japan Sea (Supervisor - prof. Yuri Altukhov). Doctor of Biological Sciences – highest degree in Russia - defended in 1995 at St-Petersburg State University and confirmed by Russia’s Highest Certification Board.