Wen-Hsiung LI, born in Ping-Tung, Taiwan, on 22 September 1942, is a US citizen and a citizen of Taiwan. He is at present George Beadle Professor at the University of Chicago (since 1998), Member of the National Academy of Sciences, USA (since 2003), Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (since 1999) as well as Academician of the Academia Sinica, Taiwan (since 1998).After his MS in Geophysics from the National Central University, Taiwan (1968), and his PhD in Applied Mathematics (1972) from Brown University, Providence, RI, USA, he held the following positions: Project Associate, Medical Genetics, University of Wisconsin-Madison (1972-1973); Assistant Professor of Population Genetics (1973-1978), Associate Professor of Population Genetics (1978-1984) at the Center for Demographic and Population Genetics, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston; Professor (1984-1998), Betty Wheless Trotter Professor in Medical Sciences (1996-1998) at the Human Genetics Center, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston.
Guoqian Chen is a Professor, Laboratory of Systems Ecology and Sustainability Science, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, China completed his education from Huazhong Institute of Technology, Wuhan, China. He is a recipient of the Thomson Reuters Highly Cited Researchers Award, and among the Thomson Reuters China Citation Laureates. He is an editorial board for dozens of international journals. He has more than 100 international publications in reputed prestigious journals.
Dr. Glorioso has established a 35-year history of research related to the basic biology and genetics of herpes simplex virus. His contributions to the field include defining antiviral immune responses to infection, the genetics of viral pathogenesis and latency, and mechanisms of viral infection. Joseph C. Glorioso began his career at the University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MA, USA (1976–1989), where he became Professor of Microbiology and Immunology and Assistant Dean for Research and Graduate Studies. He subsequently moved to the University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, Pittsvurgh, USA, where he served as Chair and the McElroy Professor of Biochemistry until 2009. He is a former president of the American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy and serves as the American Editor of Gene Therapy. Dr Glorioso’s research focuses on molecular genetic aspects of herpes simplex virus (HSV) pathogenesis and the development of HSV gene vectors for treatment of chronic pain, neuropathy and cancer.
One of the conference objectives emphasizes "... innovations in optimizing Biotechnology & Bio-engineering research and development." Such innovation is not limited to new technologies and equipment for the laboratory, but also includes both the location of and access to the laboratory. Due to experiments that were conducted on the Space Shuttle, and ongoing experiments on the International Space Station (ISS), we know that changes in gravity affect gene expression and various cell characteristics, and that the microgravity of Low Earth Orbit is an effective research environment. Research opportunities include elucidating molecular mechanisms in microgravity, including complex fluid dynamics, analyzing proteins and large molecules, and advancing nanofluidics and biotechnology. For example, NASAâ€™s Translational Research Institute for Space Health (TRISH) has supported research into the effects of space radiation and microgravity on human hematopoietic stem cells. For cellular studies of organ microengineering, a tissue chip employs an integrated, closed, microfluidic recirculating perfusion system and is equipped with cell-tracking technology to allow better replication of in vivo conditions. Today, the Space Shuttle is retired, and ISS access is limited. Fortunately, the recent development of tissue chips that fit within commercially available (CubeSats), coupled with the advent of commercial space launch vehicles, means that scientistsâ€™ experiments that can be conducted without onsite human interaction are no longer limited to the ISS. And, the experiment payload can be returned to the scientist(s). This presentation will provide an overview of 1) CubeSats and payload return, 2) examples of research suitable for tissue chips on a CubeSat, and 3) a sample mission.
Jeff Krukin is Vice President, Business Growth for Orbital Transports, a provider of turnkey satellite solutions (from initial concept through completed mission) for space-based biotechnology and bio-engineering research. Orbital Transports headquarters is in Chicago. Jeff is located in Chapel Hill, NC, where he works closely with university space biology scientists in the Research Triangle.
The challenge confronted by farmers during prolonged periods of soil water stress is to guarantee the restoration of water and maintain the productivity agricultural crops. Even in regions where rainfall is plentiful such as Amazonia, the variability in the precipitation regime should be considered in agricultural planning. For example, there are regions in which 80% of annual rainfall is concentrated between December and June with the remaining 20% occurring between July and November. It is exactly during this period of low rainfall that small-scale family-based farmers need technological assistance to guarantee that their crops remain irrigated in order to maintain their income in this rural environment. In this context, the IrrigaPot technology arises as an alternative that is able to access rainfall that has been stored since the rainy season and provide it to plants when the soil is dry. The pots are maintained full with 20 liters of water, and through capillary action the soil maintains them constantly humid. This technology does not require specific knowledge with respect to irrigation regimes or evapotranspiration rates, and neither is it necessary for the farmer to dedicate his time to replacing water to the soil profile. The technology is totally automated through a simple system using a float, tubes, and connectors that connect a rubber hose to the lids of the pots buried in the soil. The use of low-cost technologies incorporating intelligent solutions that are easily adopted and manipulated by farmers can significantly reduce loss of water from rainfall.
Lucieta Guerreiro Martorano has completed his PhD at the age of 50 years from Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. She has developed activities as a leader of research projects in national and international spheres including project financing from sources such as the European Community through the FP7 Program, and from other agencies that focus on strengthening scientific partnerships between developed countries and those that are under-or moderately-developed. She has published more than 67 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of repute.
Terpenoids are a large and diverse class of naturally occurring organic compounds found in a vast number of organisms. As secondary metabolites, they have evolved manifold functions including signaling, biotic and abiotic defense mechanisms. Especially biotic defense strategies make these compounds attractive, since vulnerable structures are conserved in biological systems and can be used for pharmaceutical targets. Even though the first steps in the synthesis are well characterized (MEP and DXP pathways), the following synthesis steps, including cyclisation and modification, are still poorly understood. For that reason, finding novel terpene syntheses and modifying enzymes are key issues. Since most bio-based insecticides are of plant origin, their production competes with agricultural food production. The sustainable, biomass-based production of insecticides has not yet been addressed. We have tackled this issue by primarily converting agricultural residues, such as wheat bran, to an efficient fermentation base medium. We have developed an enzyme system for the almost quantitative conversion (80% w/w) of milling residues to a high sugar containing fermentation medium. We have engineered an E. coli system harboring a synthetic DXP pathway to fermentatively generate an insecticidal, diterpenoid natural product. Using iterative process engineering in conjunction with continuous strain improvements, we aim to design a continuous process, which provides for economical, bio-based production of novel bioactive compounds.
Dr. Norbert Mehlmer has completed his PhD at the University of Vienna at the Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Austria and his postdoctoral studies at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany having focused on basic research in the field of plant biochemistry and physiology. He is now group leader for systems biotechnology at the Technical University of Munich, Germany with the main focus on applied aspects of modern biocatalysis.
In this study, a biodegradable copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) was produced from an agricultural by-product namely corn silage through a fermentation process using Thermus thermophilus HB8. Two types of corn silage pre-treatment processes viz. deionized water treatment (unhydrolysed) and acid hydrolysis were carried out at different strengths of corn silage (6%, 12%, 24% and 48%), at 70â„ƒ for 50 hrs. Both pretreatments were able to produce biopolymer where 6% uhydrolysed pretreatment yielded 12% PHA, 12% yielded 20.44% PHA, 28% yielded 28.42% PHA and 48% yielded 18.65% PHA, respectively; 6% acidic pre-treatment yielded 42.23% PHA, 12% yielded 49.53% PHA, 24% yielded 56,41% PHA and 48% yielded 61.32% PHA, respectively. The extracted polymer was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy to study the characteristic bands; Gas Chromatography to confirm the PHA monomers of the extracted methyl esters; Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to study the morphology of the produced bioplastic; Tensile testing instrument to study the tensile properties of the bioplastics.
Prof N Deenadayalu has a PhD from University of Natal, South Africa. She has published more than 50 papers in reputed journals and presented more than 70 conferences abstracts together with her postgraduate students both nationally and internationally. She is a NRF C2 rated scientist with a h-index of 22.
Locally, the petroleum, aluminum and steel milling industries have expressed considerable interest in the utilization of bioremediation as a means for reducing their lubricant waste. The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of microalgae Scenedesmus vacuolatus versus microalgal consortium (Chlamydomonas pitschmannii, Trebouxia australis and Pectinodesmus pectinatus) in the biodegradation of industrial coolant and spent lubricant waste products. To determine a biodegradation capability of the microalgae, dehydrogenase activity tests were carried out. Samples that indicated positive dehydrogenase activity where then analyzed weekly using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, to track the biotransformation of hydrocarbons and confirm biodegradation of the total petroleum hydrocarbons. Statistical analysis with SPSS, p<0.05, indicated the microbial consortium to be better at degradation compared to Scenedesmus vacuolatus. Dehydrogenase activity for both the coolant rolling oil (0.058 Â± 0.001 mg/mL), and the spent rolling emulsion (0.047 Â± 0.002) was higher for the microbial consortium compared to S. vacuolatus, 0.046 Â± 0.001 mg/mL (for both coolant and spent oil emulsions). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry confirmed 100% biodegradation by both Scenedesmus vacuolatus and microalgal consortium after five weeks. This data can now be used to upscale the experiments and develop a bioremediation strategy to be used by local industries.
Stella has completed her MSc from Unversity of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and currently a doctoral student at Unversity of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. She currently specialize in microbial biotechnology for bioremediation. Sumaiya is a microbiologist and academic at Unversity of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. She specializes in environmental microbiology and microbial biotechnology.
The aluminum and steel industry makes use of hydrocarbon rolling oils which are termed â€˜spent oilsâ€™ after use. Hazardous waste management companies remove the spent oils, which eventually end up being dumped at local hazardous material dump sites. The lack of an environmentally friendly strategy to reduce hazardous waste from factories was the incentive for this research. The aim was to determine and monitor an indigenous Achromobacter aegrifaciens bacterial biotransformation/ biodegradation of Kerosene based rolling oils including the additives: methyl laurate, lauric acid, and Shellsol D100. This was done via dehydrogenase assays and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Achromobacter aegrifaciens bacterial biotransformation was also compared to that of an exogenous consortium of Lysinibacillus fusiformis and Pseudomonas synaxantha. Results were analyzed statistically, using SPSS version 24. The mean differences were significant at the 0.05 level for both the Dehydrogenase assay and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Further, subterminal oxidation was determined to be the main activation mechanism for the biotransformation. Methylation occurred during rolling oil biotransformation but was more prevalent in biotransformations of the additives, especially methyl laurate. Methylation resulted in less efficient biotransformations compared to subterminal oxidation. This bioremediation strategy can now be further established for larger volume bioreactors as we established that the toxic monoaromatic compounds were successfully degraded at the end of five weeks making this bioremediation strategy a viable alternative to the current dumping by waste companies.
Nyashadzashe has completed her MSc from University of KwaZulu-Natal Pietermaritzburg, South Africa and is currently pursuing her PhD at the same institution. She specialises in biotechnology studies focused on hydrocarbon bioremediation. Sumaiya is a Doctor of Microbiology and a Lecturer at University of KwaZulu-Natal Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. She specialises in Microbial biotechnology.
Nitriles are omnipresent organic compounds which are synthesized by cyanogenic plants as cyanoglycosides, cyan lipids as well as added to the environment due to the anthropogenic activities. These compounds are toxic to living organisms, however in nature, there are many microbes which can use them as nutrients or have enzymes which can detoxify them. Nitrilase superfamily of enzymes is mainly responsible for nitrile detoxification in microbial system. They have three types of enzymes viz nitrilases, nitrile hydratases and amidases which can directly or indirectly convert toxic nitriles into carboxylic acid. Nitrilase directly converts organic nitriles into organic acids and ammonia; while nitrile hydratases and amidases work indirectly, by first converting nitrile into amide which further act as a substrate to amidases and transform it into acid and ammonia. These enzymes are also employed in many industries like paint, drugs and pharmaceutical industries. Mesophilic nitrilases/Nhase/amidases are prone to degradation at high temperature which is encountered at industrial level. Thermostable enzymes can be an alternate to this problem and can be either explored in extreme habitats of the nature or can be engineered by their mesophilic counterparts. A few nitrilases from Acidovorax facilis 72W, Bacillus pallidus DaC521, Streptomyces Sp and Thermotoga maritime MSB8 have been isolated from volcanic sites, thermal springs have been reported in literature. In present study we are exploring thermostable nitrilase producing strains present in thermal springs of western Himalayas using enrichment technique as well as metagenomics. Thermophilic microbes possess enzymes which can work at such extreme conditions and may act as a good source of novel enzymes for industrial bioprocess. In past decade many groups have also investigated artificial habitats to search for microbes habituating such environment. These thermostable nitrile degrading enzymes may find their application as catalyst in cyanide/nitrile contaminated site, biosensor for nitrile/amide contamination in food or in various industries.
Dr. B. D. Banerjee is working as a Professor of Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry, University College of Medical Sciences since November 2000 and also holded the position of Head, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Delhi since January 2009 to January 2012. Before joining Delhi University, as Reader in the year 1992, he has worked at National Institute of Communicable Diseases as JRF, SRF, ARO, Research Scientist and Senior Research Officer between 1980 and 1987 and as Assistant Professor at All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Kolkata, since 1988 to 1992 (October) after obtaining Ph.D. degree in Biochemistry from Aligarh Muslim University. He possessed 3 decades of Research/Teaching experience at under-and post graduate level (MBBS, M.Sc., MD, PhD, DNB, MVPH, DPH, DMCW, DIH, and Diploma in Dietetics etc.) in various capacity. He has been also associated in the Teaching/ Research programmed of M.Sc. and Ph. D. students under School of Environmental Studies/ Department of Environmental Biology and ACBR, University of Delhi
Dr. Marc A. Rosen is a Professor at University of Ontario Institute of Technology near Toronto, where he served as founding Dean of the Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science from 2002 to 2008. Dr. Rosen was President of the Engineering Institute of Canada from 2008 to 2010 and, before that, President of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering. He is a registered Professional Engineer, and serves as founding Editor-in-Chief of the journal Sustainability and a member of the Board of Directors of Oshawa Power and Utilities Corporation. With over 60 research grants and contracts and 500 technical publications, Dr. Rosen is an active teacher and researcher in thermodynamics, sustainable energy and the environmental impact of energy and industrial systems. Dr. Rosen has worked for such organizations as Imatra Power Company in Finland, Argonne National Laboratory near Chicago, and the Institute for Hydrogen Systems near Toronto. Dr. Rosen has received various honors, including an Award of Excellence in Research and Technology Development from the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy and the Engineering Institute of Canada’s Smith Medal for achievement in the development of Canada.
Michael Jones was in Natural Sciences, specialist in Biochemistry, at Cambridge University, UK. He was followed by a PhD in Plant Biochemistry at Cambridge University, and Postdoc positions at the University of Missouri, USA (Plant Pathology), and ANU (RSBS, Developmental Biology), three months with Prof OH Lowrie at Washington University, St Louis, USA (micro techniques), and back to the Biochemistry Department at Cambridge University for 3 years. I was then employed as a Senior Scientific Officer at the Welsh Plant Breeding Station (Aberystwyth) as part of the ARC Genetic Manipulation Program, and then Principal Scientific Officer at Rothamsted Experimental Station (now Rothamsted Research), as Plant cell Biology Co-coordinator in the Department of Biochemistry. After 8 years in that position I was appointed as Professor of Plant Sciences at Murdoch University in late 1990. I became Foundation Director of WA State Agricultural Biotechnology Centre (SABC) in 1993, and my title changed to Professor of Agricultural Biotechnology in 2003. He have supervised more than 50 PhD students, obtained more than $40 million in competitive research grants, and published 270 scientific publications.
Kidney disease affects a large portion of the worldâ€™s population and it has been ranked between the top 20 causes of total number of deaths worldwide. Over 2 million people undergo kidney transplant or dialysis treatment to survive kidney diseases. Hemodialysis (HD) consist of an extracorporeal blood purifying method for these patients. This bioseparation process is a membrane-based therapy that can retain toxins and remove excess fluid, utilizing bioengineered artificial membrane scaffolds. Although HD is crucial for patients to stay alive, many patients experience short- and long-term life-threatening complications associated with the interactions between blood components and the polymeric membrane surface. One of the main concerns in HD is the side effects that can arise from adsorption of blood proteins to the membrane surface. The properties of HD membranes and the operating conditions can significantly affect adsorption of blood proteins and consequently the blood activation pathways. Membrane properties such as biocompatibility and surface roughness play an important role in protein adsorption as it influences the affinity of the membrane material with blood components. Additionally, the HD operating conditions in clinical practices can significantly influence protein adsorption and play a critical role in cell rupture pathway which can enhance the adsorption process. Therefore, understanding the effects of blood and dialysate flow rate, operating pressure, and treatment time can lead better control of protein adsorption, reducing the side effects that are associated with unacceptably high morbidity and mortality rates.
It is very painful to see how the victims of this terrible illness deteriorate. My stepmother had Alzheimer. Since then I have been obsessed by the impotence we have in finding a cure to this tragedy. I have also analyzed other persons with Alzheimer because I wanted to know more about it. As a Life Member of scientific associations I have received scientific journals for over 60 years. This is my primary source for the latest articles on medicine. Besides engineering I have studied chemistry, biophysical chemistry and the atomic structure of particles. This research has been presented in 39 papers in English at the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, Iowa and Alaska Academies of Science as well as at international congresses (Ref. 1 and 5). I applied my background to analyze my stepmotherâ€™s Alzheimer. One of the tests I performed was to find the pH of the different body fluids: blood, saliva and urine. With the exception of her blood, the pH was alkaline. Over the years I had analyzed the pH of many Alzheimer patients and have discovered that the pH of body fluids was always alkaline. Once we know the origin, we then can have the means to stop or even cure it. To know more about alkalinity and Alzheimer I found that there is research supporting my findings. For example, at South Florida University in Tampa, USA, they found that drinking coffee makes Alzheimer's victims get better. Applying my knowledge of chemistry, as I analyzed 47 chemicals for my Masterâ€™s thesis and grouped them by their alkalinity and acidity, the pH of coffee was acidic. At the University of Leeds, England, where I was Professor External Examiner, they have discovered that tea, and wine, which are acid, improved Alzheimer's patient conditions. Based on the fact that Alzheimerâ€™s patients I analyzed have, with the exceptions of their blood, alkaline body fluids and tea, coffee and wine (which are acid) make them improve, the solution is to â€œde-alkalizeâ€ them. This, however, should be left in the hands of medical doctors because it is beyond my scope of practice to prescribe treatments. Something that I also have found in analyzing the body fluids of many sick people is that Alzheimer and cancer cannot occur at the same time in the same person. In summary, an acidic environment in our brain cells will destroy the amyloid proteins covering the axons, which cause Alzheimerâ€™s disease. I have spent many years researching this subject, on my own. This research can help and serve humanity to eliminate one of its scourges. Former President Obama and Hillary Clinton had pledged two billion dollars to eradicate Alzheimer by 2025. I have discovered it 10 years before such date. I have spent a large amount of my savings and continue doing research, at the age of 90.
Cancer and bacterial infections remained the leading causes of mortality worldwide. This study investigated the cytotoxicity, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of essential oil from Schinus terebinthifoliusâ€™s seeds. Essential oil of Schinus terebinthifolius was obtained using Supercritical carbon (iv) oxide extraction method and analysed with GCMS. Its cytotoxicity was determined using MTT assay with human cervical cancer cells (Hela) and Human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells Antioxidant potential of the essential oils was determined using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzothialine-6-sulfonic acid) ABTS assay. Antibacterial potential was carried out using Agar disc dilution and micro dilution with two bacteria strains (Staphylococcus acnes and Propionibacterium acnes). Fifty-six compounds were identified, and alpha pinene (28.1 %), sabinene (12.4 %), beta pinene (10.2 %), gamma elemene (9.0 %) and alpha phellandiene (6.82 %) were the major constituents of the essential oil. The essential oil showed promising anticancer potential with IC50 < 10 ug/ml on both Hela and HEK 293 cells. The oil sample showed good antioxidant activities against DPPH radical (IC50; 0.038 mg/ml) and ABTS (IC 50; 0.05 mg/ml) respectively. The zone of inhibition for the essential oil ranged between 13.2 -28.1 mm. However, the essential oil showed good antibacterial potential only on S. acnes with MIC (0.156 mg/ml) and MBC (0.313 mg/ml) respectively. Hence, the essential oil could be a good candidate for treatment of cancer and bacteria related diseases.
Introduction: Biosimilar drugs have significantly shaken the global pharmaceutical market through a better access to the health care services. Our aim is to establish a state of play in Tunisia based on the knowledge and perceptions of doctors on biosimilars in order to identify the problems related to these drugs and to propose solutions for improvement. Materials and methods: we conducted a prospective, descriptive survey using a questionnaire, destinated to oncologists and hematologists with different grades, from both public and private sectors and from severalregions. The questions focused on physiciansâ€™ general knowledge of biosimilars and their comparison with reference on safety, quality, efficacy, and indication. Finally, we explored the proportion of physicians who are favorable to the policy encouraging biosimilar use. Results: One hundred and seven doctors among 150 answered the questionnaire; 57% were oncologists and 43% were hematologists. About one over five physicians defines biosimilar as a chemical drug. About 29% do not differentiate between a biosimilar and a generic one. A percentage of 68 believe that a biosimilar can have all the indications of its reference following complementary clinical studies. On the other side, 68.2% support the policy encouraging these drugs. Last, only 3.7% of the practitioners believe that they are well informed about biosimilars. Conclusion: This is the first study that targets oncologists and hematologists. It showed a lack of information from oncologists and hematologists about biosimilars in Tunisia. Thus, health authorities should carry out training programs on biosimilars and introduce clear and effective legislation.
In recent research interest metal nanoparticles have been synthesized extensively for a variety of applications and gaining enormous research attention in various areas such as chemistry, physics, life science, material science, medical science, nanomedicine and engineering due to size and shape tune able properties. Nanoparticles posses unique optical, magnetic, electronic and catalytic properties with their distinctive feature of size and shape. The chemical synthesis of metal nanoparticles requires chemical reducing agent to convert metal ion to metal nanoparticles and involves undesired use of aggressive and hazardous chemicals. Relative to these chemical syntheses, methods of green synthesis that use ecofriendly compounds as reducing agents in place of hazardous and aggressive chemicals. The emphasis on green synthesis of metal nanoparticles and its catalytic property for a maximum societal benefit with minimal impact on the ecosystem. In this present study we demonstrated that the aqueous extract of green alga B.braunii can reduces silver ions into silver nanoparticles and have the potential to stabilize them. The novel silver nanoparticles were explored and found efficient for reduction of 2-nitroaniline and subsequently in synthesis of 2-arylbenzimidazoles. This provides a greener catalytic approach for synthesis of silver nanoparticles from alga B.braunii and its application in a newer synthetic approach for biocatalytic, one pot conversion of 2-nitroaniline to biologically important 2-arylbenzimidazoles. Synthesized nanoparticles and derivatives of benzimidazoles were characterized by UV, FTIR, X-ray and SEM.
Sumac belongs to genus of Rhus (Anacardiaceous) which is an old medicinal plant in Iran. This plant naturally propagated through suckers which are very slow and limited and vegetative propagation of this plant by cutting is not successful. Then tissue culture could be a practical method for vegetative propagation of sumac plant. To survey the effect of different combinations of plant growth regulators (PGRs) on the direct regeneration of Rhus coriaria, axillary and lateral bud segments of R. coriaria from Horand, East Azerbaijan province of Iran were used as explants. First, for shoot multiplication, Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium were fortified with four concentrations (0, 1, 2, 2.5, and 3 mg l-1) of benzylaminopurine (BAP) in combination with three concentrations (0, 0.25, and 0.5 mg lâ€“1) of indol-3-butyric acid (IBA). Then, root induction was assessed in full and half strength of MS medium supplemented with three concentrations of IBA (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5). Finally, the genetic homogeneity of the regenerated plant was subsequently assessed using ten Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Markers. Higher shoot number per explant (18.50) and shoot length (6.5 cm) were obtained in MS medium containing the 2 mg l-1 BAP with 0.25 mg l-1 IBA and 1.0 mg l-1 BAP with 0.5 mg l-1 IBA, respectively. Moreover, the best root induction rate was observed on half strength of MS containing 1.0 mg l-1 IBA. PCR profiles with ten ISSR primers on the regenerated and donor plants also verified the genetic homogeneity of the regenerated plant lets. Our study introduced an efficient protocol for future large-scale propagation and production of secondary metabolites in this plant.
Different herbal biopolymers were used to encapsulate Enterococcus durans IW3 to enhance its storage stability in yogurt and subsequently its endurance in gastrointestinal condition. Nine formulations of encapsulation were performed using alginate (ALG), ALG-psyllium (PSY), and ALG-gum Arabic (GA) blends. The encapsulation efficiency of all formulations, tolerance of encapsulated E. durans IW3 against low pH/high bile salt concentration, storage lifetime, and release profile of cells in natural condition of yogurt were evaluated. Result revealed 98.6% encapsulation efficiency and 76% survival rate for all formulation compared with the un-encapsulated formulation cells (43%). The ALG-PSY and ALG-GA formulations have slightly higher survival rates at low pH and bile salt condition (i.e., 76â€“93% and 81â€“95%, respectively) compared with the ALG formulation. All encapsulated E. durans IW3 was released from the prepared beads of ALG after 90 min, whereas both probiotics encapsulated in ALG-GA and ALG-PSY were released after 60 min. Enterococcus durans IW3 was successfully encapsulated in ALG, ALG-GA, and ALG-PSY beads prepared by extrusion method. ALG-GA and ALG-PSY beads are suitable delivery carriers for the oral administration of bioactive compounds like probiotics. The GA and PSY gels exhibited better potential for encapsulation of probiotic bacteria cells because of the amendment of ALG difficulties and utilization of therapeutic and prebiotic potentials of these herbal biopolymers.
The demand for energy continued to outstrip supply and necessitated the development of biomass option. Residues were the most popular forms of renewable energy and currently biofuel production became much promising. Agricultural wastes contained high moisture content and could be decomposed easily by microbes. Agricultural wastes were abundantly available globally and could be converted to energy and useful chemicals by a number of microorganisms. Compost or bio-fertiliser could be produced with the inoculation of appropriated thermophilic microbes which increased the decomposition rate, shortened the maturity period and improved the compost (or bio-fertiliser) quality. The objective of the present research was to promote the biomass technology and involved adaptive research, demonstration and dissemination of results. With a view to fulfill the objective, a massive field survey was conducted to assess the availability of raw materials as well as the present situation of biomass technologies. In the present communication, an attempt had also been made to present an overview of present and future use of biomass as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels, chemicals and other materials. We may conclude from the review paper that biomass technology must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated, not only in urban areas but also in remote rural areas.