In my talk, I will present recent developments from my lab on various biomaterial coatings that are facilitated by plasma deposition. These include antibacterial coatings, drug release platforms and cell guidance/capture surfaces. Undesired bacterial adhesion and subsequent colonisation of medical devices is a substantial medical problem causing complex and sometime fatal infections. We have developed various strategies for generation of antibacterial coatings that can be applied to medical device surfaces. These involve means such as silver nanoparticles, antibiotics, nitric oxide, quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) or simply coatings that have intrinsic low fouling properties. All these coatings are facilitated by plasma deposition, a technique that provides functional films placed to the surface of any type of material. Important for applications, we not only extensively test our coating for their antibacterial efficacy against medically relevant pathogens but also assess their potential cytotoxicity to mammalian cell and inflammatory consequences. We have also developed methods for the synthesis and surface immobilisation of hybrid antibacterial nanocapsules and nanoparticles, including such capable of triggered release. In a second part of my talk I outline our work on developing advanced nanoengineered plasma polymer coatings capable of directing cellular behaviour including adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and migration. We have developed unique capabilities to control and tailor entire spectrum of surface properties such as chemistry, wettability, ligand densities, nanomechanics and nanotopography in a substrate independent fashion. We can tailor all these surface properties in a gradient manner too. I will demonstrate how we use surface gradients of nanoparticles density to study the influence of surface nanotopography on the behavior of various cell types, including immune cells and I will outline how we guide the differentiation of stem cells by tailoring surface chemistry, nanotopography or density of signalling molecules. I will also briefly present drug delivery and release platforms that we have developed including a method for solvent free encapsulation of drug particles. A recently developed device for selective cancer cell capture for complex liquids and how it is used for diagnostic of bladder cancer will also be presented.
In the field of crop agriculture, and biology in general, we are now living in one of the most exciting and challenging times. There are unprecedented global challenges; the world is changing rapidly, and many believe that global sustainability of food production is under serious threat.One of the main factors contributing to the advances in New Breeding Technologies (NBTs) is that there have been phenomenal advances in DNA sequencing technology over the past 15 years, and when this is combined with new technologies such as genome editing there are potentially many new opportunities to improve crop production, benefit human health and the environment. The current regulations as they apply to crop plants are more than 17 years old: they are now out-of-date and no longer-fit-for purpose. Regulatory uncertainty is limiting new investment and clouding the understanding of consumers. A review of the current status of GM technologies is provided. A new decision tree is proposed for the regulation of NBTs which retains the same trigger for consideration by regulators, but takes into account the type of modification, a history of safe usage, and is designed to avoid excessive regulation of the products of new breeding technologies.
Professor Michael Jones is a pioneer and leader in agricultural biotechnology in Western Australia. He has a degree in Biochemistry and a PhD in Plant Biochemistry from Cambridge University. He was appointed as a Professor at Murdoch University in 1990, in 1993 he became Foundation Director of the WA State Agricultural Biotechnology Centre (SABC) and Professor of Agricultural Biotechnology. Professor Jones is an internationally recognised expert in agricultural biotechnology, and isco-founder and of two agricultural biotechnology companies. He has established two WA State Government Centres of Excellence. He is a member of the Agricultural Biotechnology Council of Australia (ABCA) and was a member of the Australian Biotechnology Advisory Council, (ABAC), which advised Australian government ministers on national biotechnology policy.Current projects involve the use of gene silencing technology and genome editing. He was awarded the Murdoch University Research Medal in 2006, and has raised more than $35 million in research funding, supervised 50 PhD students and published 265 peer-reviewed research papers, book chapters and books.
Many theories of reflexology use ancient concepts which do not coincide with the modern medical terminology of anatomy,physiology and biophysics. This substantially reduces the trust of physicians in reflexology methods. During this research,several mathematical models for the interaction of the internal and biological active points of meridian structures have been proposed. The analysis of these models allows the specification of a list of internal diseases like stomach , Heart , and emotional tension for which reflex diagnostics and reflex therapy methods are most effective and also allows increasing the effectiveness of these procedures. It is shown that good results for the prediction and early diagnosis of diseases from the reaction energy of biologically active points (acupuncture points) are obtained using fuzzy logic decision making
Riad Taha Al-Kasasbeh holds an MS in Engineering Science and a PhD in Controlling of Biological and of Electronic Equipments. Currently, he is a Professor at Al-Balqa University. He is a member of professional organisations, an auditor for quality of research and education and co-author of over 80 papers (editions: Springer, IEEE, France Taylor, IASTED, etc.). He is also a Visiting Professor along with other universities such as Philadelphia University and Konstanz University (HTWG) , Germany. He was a research fellow of DFG at (HTWG). His research fields cover modelling and simulation of man machine systems, EEG signal processing,biomedical design instrumentation, biophysics and acupuncture
Integrated biosensor has been introduced for amperometric DNA detection of Dengue virus in real time. It is aimed to synthesize Cu2CdSnS4 (CCTS) quaternary alloy nanostructures deposited on oxygen etched silicon substrate O2/Si via spin coating technique, then annealed at 400 °C.The CCTSnanostructures have been analyzed using UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and characterized via atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Interdigitated electrodes (IDE's) have been fabricated using silver as a metal contact deposited on the CCTS/O2/Si substrate using a thermal evaporator vacuum coater (PVD) and a hard mask. The CCTSquaternary alloy nanostructures acted as a support for immobilization of a dengue-specific DNA probe that is employed as the recognition element. It has been successfully tested sensitivity using single-stranded DNA in concentrations from 100 fM to 10 nMusing amperometry, typically at a working voltage range from -3V to 3V. The lower detection limit was 16.9 nM. Sensitivity was found to be 24.2 µA nM−1 cm−2. The biosensor is inexpensive, fast, highly sensitive, and has low power consumption.
Prof. Dr. Yarub Al-Douri has more than 500 publications currently and 4M US$ research grants. His citations = 3409, h-index = 26 and i10-index = 96 for the moment. He is Founding Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Nanotechnology Specialized Researches,Editor-in-Chief of World Journal of Nano Science and Engineering, Associate Editor of Nano-Micro Letters (Q1)and has been honored 60 awards internationally. He has initiated Nanotechnology Engineering MSc Program and Nano Computing Laboratory, the first ones in Malaysia. His research interests are Modeling and Simulation, Semiconductors, Optical Studies, Nanoelectronics, Nanomaterials and Renewable Energy
Cell-based assay is a powerful tool in the fields of drug discovery. A transcription factor called HIF serves as a master regulator to enable cells to survive in hypoxic condition, a state of oxygen deprivation in the human body. The HIF target genes were regulated by HIF and thus expressing various cellular responses for hypoxia acclimation purposes. HIF is also known to be related with wide-ranging of medical complications with either over or deficient in HIF expression. Therefore, HIF appears to be an attractive therapeutic target to manipulate hypoxia-related diseases. As HIF is emerging as an ideal druggable molecular target, a cell-based reporter assay system to regulate HIF activity is in demand. Although HIF assay systems are available in the market, they are limited, not cost-effective and lacked sensitivity. Hence, in the present study, we developed a robust and remarkably sensitive monoclonal mammalian cell-based assay system to quantitate HIF activities for drug discovery. It is made of a stable genetically-modified osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells containing four repeat tandems of HRE of a potent HIF target gene. HRE is directly corresponding with the expression of firefly luciferase reporter gene in various culture conditions. The HIF bioassay system was validated rigorously on various HTS parameters, including its robustness, linearity, specificity, intermediate precision and solvent compatibility. In conclusion, this highly sensitive HIF assay system is amenable to the small-scale HTS format in drugs screening, which manage to keep the entire assaying cost low and reduces the amount of precious drugs target of interest.
LIEW Sien-Yei has completed her Ph.D. in Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences from Universiti Putra Malaysia. She is specialized in the field of cell biotechnology, genetic engineering and molecular biology. Currently, she had filed patent protection on the HIF activity reporter cell line in Malaysia, USA, China, Europe and India. She had published a paper in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology entitled "Hypoxia affects cellular responses to plant extracts".
In Malaysia, colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the deadliest diseases among male and females. However, the common fluorouracil-based treatment is highly dose dependent and even causes toxicity if blood glucose level was poorly managed. Therefore, understanding mechanisms that regulate drug cytotoxicity due to hyperglycemia is crucial to sustain an effective therapy. In most cases, drug cytotoxicity is examined withsingle-factor designed experiment. This study incorporated hyperglycemic condition to evaluate the effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in vitro. Two human colonic carcinoma cell lines, namely HCT 116 and HT 29, were maintained in normal glucose (5.5mM) medium. Both cell lines were then exposed to different glucose concentrations and they showed optimal growth at 25mM to mimic serum glucose level in diabetes individuals. It is independent of osmotic stress due to presence of high glucose concentration. The cytotoxicity of 5-FU on the cancer cells was significantly modulated under hyperglycemic condition. The molecular mechanism that regulates the cell growth was assessed by cell cycle and cell apoptosis assays. The experimental design was also applied on rosiglitazone (an antidiabetic drug) and its combination with 5-FU. Interestingly, rosiglitazone exerted synergistic effect on 5-fluorouracil mediated cytotoxicity regardless of the glucose levels. This study shows that the 5-FU, chemotherapeutic drug efficacy is affectedby glucose level and the presence of antidiabetic drug. Therefore, it is feasible to speculate that this model may be applied as a tool to assess other potential anti diabetic compounds especiallyfrom natural sources. This may also provide a better treatment optionsfor patients with CRC associated with hyperglycemia.
Currently, Mr. Lau MengFei is a full-time PhD candidate in the Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya. His research areas include vermicomposting, macrofungi identification, mushroom cultivation, cell culture, cell biology and cell biochemistry. He has contributed a few publications during his research career.
Transgenic Hematopoietic Stem Cells Against Cancer by help of FACs:The choice of NK receptor genes is polarized in the two species most studied, mouse and human. In mouse, the C-type lectin-related ly49 gene family preponderates. Conversely, the single ly49 sequence is a pseudogene in humans, and the immunoglobulin superfamily KIR gene family is widespread. These different gene sets encode proteins that are comparable in function and genetic diversity, even though they have endured species-speciﬁc expansions. Natural killer (NK) cells destroy cells infected with certain viruses and other intracellular pathogens and mostly cancerous cell. They also inﬂuence immune responses through the release of cytokines. A key aspect of recognition of appropriate board cells is the ubiquitously articulated major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule, a ligand for which NK cells generally have multiple receptors, but the main problem for NK cells to defeat cancer on their own is that their population is always far less than cancer cells. Our recent study has done the Separation of Natural killer cells (NK cells) from rat’s blood with the technique of LS column with the help of CD94 markers and Cultured of harvested NK cells in animal cells media (Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium) with the help of animal cell culture procedure. After purification of NK cells, Extraction of certain genes m RNA ( Klra4, Klra8,KLRD1) of NK cells began with the help of mRNA extraction technique.On the other hand, we had to harvest hematopoietic stem cells from the thigh bone marrow of rats and culture them into the special intended culture media for culturing stem cells (that would prevent the cell to form mature).At the end, the main transfection would be done by cloning that three specific genes of NK cells into the harvested stem cells by the help of Lipofectamine, to observe the ratio of transfection efficiency researchers used two different techniques of flow cytometry and FACS.To implicate aspects of NK cells in normal cells with regular cell division ratio probably would be a chance to solve the population problem of NK cells against cancer cells and enhance their effectiveness against them.
Alireza Pirahmadian has completed his PhD at the university of Malaya and been research assistant for last 4 years in institute of biological science in university of Malaya. He has done his master in applied genetics in Bangalore university of Bangalore, India and his bachelor in the field of microbiology in Azad University of jahrom, Fars, Iran.
Microbial conversion of plant-originated functional molecules was investigated. Zygomycetous fungi Cunninghamellaechinulata was found to convert 3-hydroxyflavone and its derivatives efficiently into the respective 3-O-glucosylated compounds. Biochemical study using cell-free system suggested that this process is catalyzed by glucosyltransferase in UDP-glucose-dependent manner. Cinnamaldehyde had been known to be converted to (2S, 3R) 5-phenylpent-4-ene-2,3 –diol, an important starting material of synthesis of biologically active compounds, by budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We reported that this conversion is dependent on pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC1) to form a condensed intermediate, followed by the reduction process. Escherichia coli expressing yeast PDC1 gene was shown to accumulate a metabolite which issupposed to be the intermediate. These results suggested the possibility of using microorganisms as catalysts to produce biofunctional molecules
Shunichi Miyakoshi received his Ph.D. degree (Applied Biochemistry, Agricultural Science) from the University of Tsukuba, Japan in 1987. He joined Sankyo Co. Ltd., (Daiichi-Sankyo Co. Ltd., at present) and was involved with the discovery of antibiotics and enzyme inhibitors from microbial resources and the development of microbial production of bioactive materials. He moved to National Institute of Technology, Gunma College as a professor in 2007, and is been involved with microbial conversion of materials and production of useful materials from biomass
Orchids are nature's most extravagant and largest group of flowering plants distributed throughout the world and with an incredible range of diversity they are utilized aesthetically, medicinally and as ecological indicators. The only economically important orchid, the second costliest spice, and the globally-sought-after flavor yielding plant - Vanilla planifolia Andrews (syn. Vanilla fragrans Salisb.) Ames, the source of natural vanilla is native to Mexico and Central America, but cultivated in other parts of the globe. The history of cultivated vanilla suggests that cultivated vanilla outside Mexico originated from a single clone leading to monoculture, susceptibility to diseases and hampering breeding programmes. The reduction in the number of species will result in lower stability of the genus and presence of important agronomic characters in few species of Vanilla, V.andamanica, V.aphylla and V.pilifera, calls for immediate conservation measures for the entire genus. In vitro conservation of Vanilla and its related species was standardized paving a way for conservation of endangered species. Utilizing techniques viz., synthetic seed, slow growth and cryopreservation, helped in the conservation of the vanilla genetic resources. The protoplast isolation and fusion technology developed indicates its amenability to genetic manipulation studies and possibility of transfer of useful traits through the production of somatic hybrids. Asynchronously flowering in different species of Vanilla, hampered the evolutionary studies and research on hybridization, towards the possibility of converging the useful genes from wild species into cultivated vanilla. Technology was developed for cryopreservation of pollen from different species, for conserving the haploid gene pool in cryobanks and their utlization in breeding programmes. Molecular profiles were used to estimate the level of genetic diversity and interrelationships among different collections of Vanilla planifolia and few related species. Studies revealed that the species are diverse. A model system has thus been developed in this important orchid tapping the potential of biotechnological tools, and holds promise of being grown as a mixed crop increasing the socio-economic status of farmers and cultivators .
Dr Minoo Divakaran has a research career on spices biotechnology for a span of 14 years at the Indian Institute of Spices Research, and has worked for her doctoral thesis on creation and characterization of variability in Vanilla. Currently, she is an Assistant Professor at the Providence Women’s College, Calicut, India and guides PhD students at the Malabar Botanical Garden and Institute of Plant Sciences. She has more than 90 publications to her credit with research articles in reputed journals, chapters in International books etc., and has been been invited as a speaker to the International Orchid Conservation Conference
Celastrus paniculatus Willd., a vulnerable woody liana with high medicinal value and limited reproductive capacity has been over exploited for medicinal purpose due to its demand in the pharmaceutical industry. An efficient micropropagation protocol was developed and favourable proliferation in WP medium supplemented with BAP (0.5 mg l-1) was obtained. Seventy percentage of the plantlets were successfully acclimatized to ex vitro conditions, exhibiting normal development. Genetic fidelity of the in vitro developed plants was analysed using RAPD using 10 primers. The amplified products of all the regenerated plants were monomorphic and were similar to the mother plant, thus assuring the usage of in vitro technology for multiplication of the species by maintaining the genetic homogeneity of tissue culture raised plants. In vitro conservation was carried out using short term and medium term conservation methods viz., synthetic seeds production and in vitro slow growth methods. Synthetic seeds prepared with (5%) sodium alginate, supplemented with activated charcoal could be stored for a period of 30 days. In vitro slow growth could be achieved with the addition of activated charcoal (2 g/l) with sucrose and the subculture interval could be extended upto a year. The present study reports the successful usage of in vitro techniques for multiplication and conservation of a vulnerable medicinal species.
Interest for the traditional fermented foods is increasing worldwide because of their health benefits. The latter are mainly linked to the microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts and moulds) used for their manufacture according to natural processes. Algeria has a well established tradition in the dairy products making, transmitted from generation to generation. Various traditional products are in disappearing for different reasons including unavailability of feed, rural exodus and the change of the feeding habits. Those which are largely consumed, alike Rayeb and Lben, have preserved their denominations but they changed their manufacture process because of industrialization. Since consumption of dairy products is generally associated with their health benefits and nutritional value, the use of artisanal products is more suitable than the industrial ones. In our laboratory (Bejaia University), we try to contribute to the preservation of the traditional fermented dairy products, but with introduction of selected lactic acid bacteria strains as bio-preservatives or probiotics and fortification of fermented milks with some local fruits alike dry figs or dates as probiotics sources. In the present work we will focused on a recent formulation of fermented milk beverages, associating a Rayeb- like fermented milk enriched with a probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei strain and dates or figs. The physicochemical, microbiological and sensorial analyses have revealed the suitability of these new formulations for human consumption. Key words: Fermented milks; Lactobacillus paracasei; dates; dry figs; new formulation
Antibodies have been used for treatment and intervention of diseases since the early 1900s and before the discovery of the first antibiotic, penicillin. Currently, there are several formats of therapeutic antibodies including single chain antibody variable fragment (scFv) which each molecule consists of VH domain linked via a polypeptide to VL domain (VH-linker-VL). In this study, the efficacy of human scFvagainst RNA dependent RNA polymerase (NS5B) of hepatitis C viruswas examine. Two scFv inhibiting HCV polymerase activity were selected. The scFvs were linked to a cell penetrating peptide to make cell penetrable scFvs. The transbodies reduced the HCV RNA and infectious virus particles released into the culture medium and inside hepatic cells transfected with a heterologous HCV replicon. They also rescued the innate immune response of the transfected cells.Phage mimotope search and homology modeling/molecular docking revealed the NS5B subdomains and residues bound by the scFvs.In conclusion, human transbodies that inhibited HCV RdRp activity and HCV replication and restored the host innate immune response were produced. They are potentially future interferon-free anti-HCV candidates, particularly in combination with other cognates that are specific to NS5B epitopes and other HCV enzymes.
Kanyarat Thueng-in has completed herPhD at the age of 30 years from Thammasat University.She is the Lecturer of School of Pathology, Institute of Medicine, Suranaree University of Technology, Thailand.
Host plant resistance is the most practical approach to control parasitic nematodes in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Our previous work has identified a resistance locus on chromosome-11 (qMi-C11) affecting galling and another locus on chromosome-14 (qMi-C14) affecting egg production. The two QTL regions have been finely mapped to a small genomic region. Herein, we applied the comparative transcriptomic approach to compare expression profiles of genes between RKN susceptible and resistance genotypes at an early stage of RKN development that coincide with the establishment of a feeding site and at the late stage of RKN development that coincide with RKN egg production. RNASeq analysis identified a large number of DEGs to be down regulated in susceptible genotype at the late stage of RKN development while several genes were upregulated in the resistant genotype. Key enriched categories included transcription factor activity, defense response, response to phyto-hormones, cell wall organization, and protein serine/threonine kinase activity.
The temporal evolution of ischemic stroke lesion is a highly dynamic process during the acute phase showing wide variations in the growth rate with no correlation between time and diffusion lesion volume. However, this volume defines some of the very sensitive treatment decisions that the neurosurgeon has to make; (a) perform a hemicraniectomy? (b) When to perform this surgery? (c) Prognosis of this surgery's outcome? Currently there is no clearly determined method to measure Infarct Growth Rate and Infarct Volume in acute stroke. Moreover, no software or other method is available to the clinicians for this purpose. The calculation of the rate of tissue loss or prediction of infarction volume at a particular point in time after stroke onset depends on the shape of the growth function of the typical ischemic stroke and the pattern of infarction growth. As a current practice, the stroke lesion growth is most frequently assumed to be linear, or logarithmic. This paper presents our recent findings using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System [ANFIS] that it can predict IGR and IV with reasonable accuracy, over wide time range while linear, natural logarithmic and exponential methods failed to predict infarction growth rate [IGR] and infarction volume [IV]. ANFIS hypothesize relationships within the data, and newer learning is able to produce complex characterizations of those relationships. The study was conducted on real stroke-registry database from the local hospital and has shown over 85% accurate prediction.
Uvais Qidwai received his Ph.D(EE). from the University of Massachusetts–Dartmouth USA in 2001. He was affiliated with the EECS Department at Tulane University in New Orleans USA as Faculty member as well as a research member in Missile Defense Center, and Robotics teams.Hiscurrent affiliation is with the Department of Computer Science & Engineering at Qatar University, Qatar as Associate Professor of Computer Engineering. His present research interests include use of intelligent embedded systems and techniques in Robotics applied to healthcare and industrial applications. He has published over 125 papers in reputable journals and conference proceedings, and has been granted one US and one GCC patents.
Our recent research supported by NATO SPS program, project NUKR.SFPP 984637was dedicated to development of novel optical bio-sensors for detection of mycotoxins, a range of toxic, carcinogenic, and endocrine disrupting compounds produced by different fungi species grown on agriculture products (grains, nuts, coffee beans, spices, fruits, etc.) and associated food and feed. In addition to traditional analytical high-tech methods for toxin detection, the development of low cost, portable, though highly sensitive bio-sensors suitable for in-field and point-of-care diagnostics is in great demand nowadays. Several optical transducing techniques, such as total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE), localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), and polarization interferometry (PI) were explored in this project. The detection of several mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, zearalenone, ochractoxin A) was carried out in the immunoassay with specific antibodies which were immobilized on the surface using either electrostatic LbL deposition or direct covalent binding of split antibodies. Aptamers were also used as an alternative to traditional antibodies. A combination of TIRE and LSPR methods allows the detection of mycotoxins in 0.01 ppb range of concentrations in direct assays with either split antibodies or aptamers. The most promising method, however, is polarization interferometry based on planar waveguides which offers the detection limit in ppt level. Yet, such PI-based biosensors can be scaled down to hand-held devices and thus can be used for in-field or point-of-care analysis.
Alexei Nabokhas BSc/MSc degree in Radiophysics and Electronics from Kiev University (Ukraine) in 1973, and PhDfrom the Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in 1984. The main subject of his research for the last 30 years was thin organic films and nano-structures, chemical- and bio-sensing. Since 1997 Dr. A. Nabok works at Sheffield Hallam University, UK where he is currently a professor at the Department of Engineering and Mathematics and Materials and Engineering Research Institute. He isan author of more than 150 publications including books, collaborator of several research projects, a reviewer and editorial board member of several journals and international conferences.
Platform technologies that can be rapidly adapted to develop and produce vaccines on a commercial scale are needed to counter current and emerging infectious disease threats. An adaptable viral-vector with a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell-based vaccine development and manufacturing process may be one way to best achieve this goal. Herein we describe an innovative vaccinia virus (VACV)-derived vaccine platform termed ‘Sementis Copenhagen Vector’ (SCV), which has been genetically attenuated by deletion of the essential viral assembly gene, D13L. The SCV can be propagated in rescue CHO cells engineered to express D13 and the VACV host-range factor CP77, named the ‘SCV cell substrate’ (SCS), thereby providing a biopharmaceutical industry-standard manufacturing pathway to commercial SCV vaccine production. To illustrate the utility of the SCV vaccine platform technology, a SCV-chikungunya virus (CHIKV) vaccine (SCV-CHIK) and a single-vectored Zika chikungunya vaccine (SCV-ZIKA/CHIK) were developed. SCV proved to be fully attenuated in a range of human-derived cell lines and in immunocompromised mice. A single vaccination of mice with SCV-CHIK was able to induce CHIKV-specific antibody responses that were equivalent to those produced by replication-competent VACV-CHIK, could neutralise CHIKV, and provided protection when challenged with CHIKV preventing viremia and the development of arthralgia. Furthermore, a single vectored multi-disease vaccine, SCV-ZIKA/CHIK could induce both CHIKV-specific and ZIKA-specific antibody responses and was effective in reducing both Zika virus viraemia and foetal/placental infection in femalemice and Zika virus viraemia, testes infection and pathology in male mice. Interestingly, prior infection with chikungunya or vaccinia virus did not affect the ability of the vaccine to induce anti-Zika and/or anti-chikungunya antibody responses. In summary, we have produced a novel platform technology that can readily be accommodated in a biopharmaceutical industry-standard manufacturing process. A single vector targeting multiple diseases is an innovative approach to reducing “shot burden” for commonly co-circulating viruses.
Riad Taha Al-Kasasbeh holds an MS in Engineering Science and a PhD in Controlling of Biological and of Electronic Equipments. Currently, he is a Professor at Al-Balqa University. He is a member of professional organisations, an auditor for quality of research and education and co-author of over 80 papers (editions: Springer, IEEE, France Taylor, IASTED, etc.). He is also a Visiting Professor along with other universities such as Philadelphia University and Konstanz University (HTWG) , Germany. He was a research fellow of DFG at (HTWG). His research fields cover modelling and simulation of man machine systems, EEG signal processing,biomedical design instrumentation, biophysics and acupuncture.
Refractory epilepsy affects about 0.3% of the world population, anywhere, at any age and condition. It is one of the most prevalent neurological diseases, putting though constrains t the daily life of these patients. During the las three decades a considerable research effort, worldwide, has been directed to the possibility of building a transportable device capable to predict an incoming seizure and warning the patient of such event. Many progresses have been reported, but serious challenges remain in order to have prediction algorithms with clinical acceptance, allowing the development and production of such a device. Computational intelligence and machine learning are tools that may contribute to good predictors. A review of these techniques will be made, using the Electroencephalogram (EEG) as the main biosignal, and the results critically analyzed, namely those resulting from of the European EPILEPSIAE FP7 Project. Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines have been the main techniques extensively developed and tested for a sample of 275 patients of the European Epilepsy Database. Deep learning, namely with artificial neural networks, has a good potential. Some studies with autoencoders and LSTM (Long Short Time Memory) neural networks show it, but the results need yet substantial improvements.
In recent years, omics analyses from genome, protein and metabolite information have been introduced to reveal dynamic equilibrium of organisms. Especially, capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) enabled metabolomics by analyzing change of metabolites. Methylcitric acid cycle, discovered by Tabuchi, as a propionate metabolism pathway in Yarrowialipolytica has been reported to exist widely in many microorganisms including fungi and bacteria. The distribution of this cycle was investigated by metabolomic study using CE-MS and by enzymatic assay as well. 2-methylcitric acid was detected by anionic mode CE-TOFMS analysis in the culture of 12 out of 14 microbial species, when they were grown in the media containing propionate and acetate. These results of metabolomic analysis were consistent with the activity of 2-methylcitrate synthase, the key enzyme of the methyl citric acid cycle, in these organisms demonstrating the feasibility of this approach.
Shunichi Miyakoshi received his Ph.D. degree (Applied Biochemistry, Agricultural Science) from the University of Tsukuba, Japan in 1987. He joined Sankyo Co. Ltd., (Daiichi-Sankyo Co. Ltd., at present) and was involved with the discovery of antibiotics and enzyme inhibitors from microbial resources and the development of microbial production of bioactive materials. He moved to National Institute of Technology, Gunma College as a professor in 2007, and is been involved with microbial conversion of materials and production of useful materials from biomass.
In the postgenomic era, a new strategy for chemical dereplication of polyketide anti-infective drugs from fungal endosymbionts requires novel genomics and chromatographic strategies. Despite the focus on synthetic products, natural products serve as a continuing source of novel bioactive metabolites, retaining an immense impact on modern medicine. Fungal endosymbionts are an eclectic group of microorganisms having the capability to chemically colligate the bridge between microbes and associated medicinal plants, due to their relatively high metabolic versatility. The use chemogenomics strategy may enlights to predict the nature of antimicrobial metabolites during the bioprospecting of fungal endosymbionts for new polyketide anti-infective drugs. Indeed, fungal genome mining reveals the bearing of numerous secondary metabolite gene clusters. Biosynthetic gene clusters encoding polyketide synthase (PKS) type-I gene domains were detected using different sets of degenerate primers. The potential endosymbiont strains which found to bear biosynthetic PKS gene clusters which are promising source for the discovery of novel anti-infective polyketide drugs. Simultaneously, from these potent fungal strains, isolation and purification of secondary metabolites can be carried out using HPLC, column chromatography or preparative thin layer chromatography. The isolated anti-infective metabolites can be characterized using suitable hyphenated techniques. Taking all the above into account, PKS gene is a functional gene of endosymbiotic fungi which might perform an important role in endophytic secondary metabolite production. We have come a long way to find a suitable holistic strategy for the rapid discovery of polyketide anti-infective drugs from endosymbiotic fungi.
Dr.H.C.Yashavantha Rao is an accomplished Microbiologist. He obtained his Doctoral degree in Microbiology from Department of Studies in Microbiology, University of Mysore, India. He is working in the field of biodiscovery of polyketide anti-infective drugs from endophytic fungi and actinomycetes. He has published more than 18 research papers in reputed peer reviewed international journals and has been serving as an editorial board member for several reputed journals. He has bagged several awards from different scientific organizations. His areas of research are bioprospecting of microbial endophytes, natural products discovery, microbial genomics, management of infectious diseases and multidrug resistant pathogens.
Antimicrobial resistance and emerging new diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, and fungi have been a growing threat to mankind. Due to the emergence of drug resistance pathogens, the global health is at great annoyance. Consequently, the society is at an alarming demand to discover new drugs that play a crucial role in the medicine. Despite the focus on synthetic products, natural products serve as a continuing source of novel antimicrobial metabolites, retaining an immense impact on modern medicine. Microbes residing in intense environments have an outstanding functionality and are luxuriant producers of several bioactive compounds, due to extreme environmental circumstances in terms of metabolic biochemistry. Endophytic actinomycetes harbor unique biological niches of higher plants which secrete diverse bioactive secondary metabolites. Discovery of novel endophytic actinomycetes has the potential to perform unusual metabolic pathways to produce complex chemical compounds of biotechnological significance. The potent actinomycetes strains which bear significant antimicrobial activity are promising source for the discovery of novel anti-infective drugs against multi-drug resistant pathogens. Simultaneously, from these potent endophytic actinomycetes strains, isolation and purification of antimicrobial compounds can be carried out using HPLC, column chromatography as well as spectral analysis for the characterization of antimicrobial compounds. Therefore, it is well suggested to focus attention on endophytes associated with medical plants as a prospective new source of novel microbes, because the taxa of actinomycetes in plant roots has proven to be significantly different from those found in soil environments.
Soma Mondal obtained her Master of Science degree in Microbiology from Oxford College of Science, Bangalore University and pursuing her Ph.D. in Microbiology at Department of Studies in Microbiology, University of Mysore, Karnataka, India. She is working in the field of discovery of antimicrobial drugs from endophytic actinomycetes. She is also working on the management of Sandal Spike Disease at ICFRE - Institute of Wood Science and Technology, India. She has published many scientific articles in reputed peer reviewed international journals. Her areas of research are bioprospecting of microbial endophytes and natural products discovery.
Natural killer cells are lymphocytes and they are the most important key constituent of mammalian immune system against cancer tumor cells. The genome of NK cells is categorically divided to inhibitory and activator genes that code ligands on the surface of NK cells. Indeed, these ligands are CTCs destroyer arms of the NK cells. On the other hand, hematopoietic stem cells are the origin of most blood cells, derives from BM and mature to immune cells. HSC system asymmetrically give rise to HSCs which leads to their amplification in a short interval. NK cells cannot defeat CTCs on their own. The main reason is their population (numbers are low), they cannot derive from HSCs as fast as CTCs division rate, that is why implementer techniques have to be used to treat cancer. In this project we’ve promoted and gave potency to immune system against CTCs without relying on external treatments. To obtain this goal, focus was on NK cells and to reach that determination, the population problem of NK cells had to be solved. HSCs as the main origin of NK cells transformed to NK cells so they can divide as fast as regular cells, therefore the division speed rate of these transgene cells is more than deriving from BM. Subsequently there would be more NK cells and noticeably more CTCs destruction.
Alireza Pirahmadian has completed his PhD at the University of Malaya and been research assistant for last 4 years in institute of biological science in university of Malaya. He has done his master in applied genetics in Bangalore university of Bangalore, India and his bachelor in the field of microbiology in Azad University of jahrom, Fars, Iran.
Microalgae represent a diverse group of microorganisms that can live in harsh environments and grow photoautotrophically. Different types of renewable energy can be produced by microalgae including methane by anaerobic digestion of algal biomass, biodiesel by transesterification of microalgal oil and photobiologically produced biohydrogen. Many microalgae can produce high amount of lipids (20-70 % dry weight). Biodiesel production from microalgae is being hotly debated globally because the first generation of biofuels, produced from food crops, are limited in their ability to meet the human need of liquids fuels and also because of ethical issues that prevent using of edible plants to run the cars. The present work discusses the production of biodiesel from microalgae by showing the criteria required for selection of algae, cultivation and harvest of algae, factors affecting the oil production and advantages of algae as a feedstock for biodiesel.Future research should concentrate on bioengineering of some promising species of microalgae for high lipid accumulation because it would be one of highly promising ways to meet the energy demand.
Mostafa El-Sheekh is Professor of Phycology. He has nearly 35 years of experience in the research and teaching in the field of algae and its applications. Dr. El-Sheekh served as the Dean Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt and Cultural counselor in Egyptian Embassy in Yemen and Uzbekistan. Dr. El-Sheekh holds a Ph.D. in Phycology from Tanta University and Göttingen University, Germany as Chanel system fellowship. Notably, Dr. El-Sheekh has authored more than 130 manuscripts, and 6 Book chapters and 2 books. Dr. El-Sheekh also serves as editorial member and reviewer for more than 60 peer reviewed Journals.
The present study describes, the thermal fitness and molecular characterization of class-1 integron linked trimethoprim-resistance gene, from amultiple antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli strain, isolated from feral Pigeon’s faeces. CS-PCR (for class 1 integron) and amplicon sequencing revealed that strain carried a 474-bp long open reading frame (coding for dihydrofolate reductase gene, dfrA7)inserted within the class-1 integron genetic element.Since PGB01 was native to pigeon’s gut, we also compared the growth of PGB01 at two different temperatures, 42 ºC (normal body temperature of pigeon) and 37 ºC (optimal growth temperature of human E. coli), with E. coli K12. It was found that PGB01 grew better than the laboratory strain E. coli K12 at 37ºC as well as at 42 ºC.The whole cell NMR spectral analysis of PGB01 varied from E. coli K12 in several spectral peaks which indicated its metabolic adaptation to thermal tolerance. We have also tried to reveal the basis of trimethoprim resistance phenotype conferred by the dhfrA7 gene homologue of PGB01. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation study of docked complexes, PGB01-DfrA7 and E. coli TMP-sensitive-Dfr with trimethoprim (TMP) showed loss of some of the hydrogen and hydrophobic interaction between TMP and mutated residues in PGB01-DfA7-TMP complex compared to TMP-sensitive-Dfr-TMP complex. This loss of interaction entails decrease in affinity of TMP for PGB01-DfrA7 compared to TMP-sensitive-Dfr. Keywords: Escherichia coli, Class-1 integron, antibiotic resistance, dihydrofolate reductase, Thermal-adaptation.
Emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) human bacteria is aglobal concern. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the leading pathogenic bacteria thatcause severe infections and very few antibacterial chemotherapeutic options are available for treatment. Among the contemporary treatment options, plant based therapies occupies a significant importance. Panchawalkala is a poly-herbal formulation comprising dried bark of five medicinal plants named,Ficus benghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Ficus religiosa, Ficus tsiela and Garcinia cambogia with equal ratios. The main objectives of the current investigation are; to determine the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Panchawalkala. The direct aqueous and sequential organic extracts of Panchawalkala were obtained by 3 extraction procedures to represent hot and cold conditions. For the antibacterial studies, 6 highly resistant (MIC for oxacillin> 128 ppm) MRSA strains were used and these strains were isolated from the wound samples of the hospitalized patients of Peradeniya Teaching Hospital. The S. aureus ATCC 25923 and S. aureus NCTC 6571 served as control strains. The preliminary antibacterial screening was carried out by Cut-well diffusion method and Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by micro-broth dilution method. The antioxidant capacity was determined by; 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay.The highest antibacterial activity was demonstrated by the hot aqueous extract obtained by the reflux method. Both sequential methanol extracts (Soxhlet method and Bottle-shaker method) and hot aqueous extract demonstrated high DPPH radical scavenging activity compared to L-ascorbic acid and other tested solvent extracts. Results of the present study suggest that the high polar solvent extracts of Panchawalkalapossess antibacterial activity against MRSA strains and significantantioxidant activity. Therefore, highly active solvent extracts of Panchawalkala and its purified fractions can be used to develop antibacterial chemotherapeutic agent to combat MRSA infections.
Graduated from OKI International School with 2A’s and B for Cambridge A/L examinations.Currently pursuing B.Sc. (Hons) in Biotechnology at Horizon Campus which is affiliated to Nilai University, Malaysia.A member of the environmental society of Horizon Campus and the organizing committee of blood donation campaign. Participant of talent shows conducted at Horizon Campus. Conducted research on “Evaluation of selected pharmacological properties of “Panchawalkala”, a traditional ayurvedic formulation”.
Resistance of cancer cells towards treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy is a major factor in the progression of cancer. Clearly, alternative treatments against cancer are anticipated. One of such treatments is oncolyticvirotherapy, which involves the usage of virus to kill the cancer cells. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is one of the candidates that have been used shown to induce apoptosis in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo while leaving the normal cells unharmed. Comparisons of the oncolytic activities between the velogenic (virulent strain) and the lentogenic (avirulent strain) of NDV under different microenvironment settings are still lacking. In this study, we aim to investigate the oncolytic activity of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains AF2240 (a velogenic strain) and V4-UPM (a lentogenic strain) in osteosarcoma cell line (Saos-2) in hypoxic and normoxic conditions. The purified AF2240 and V4-UPM were quantified using haemagglutination assay (HA) where the titres were recorded at 256 HAU/μLand 128 HAU/μL, respectively. The AF2240 was further quantified using plaque assay but the V4-UPM failed to show any plaque due to its non-lytic nature of replication. Using a standardised HAU for both strains, the viruses were used to infect Saos-2 cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and cell viability was determined at various time points (24, 48, 72 hpi). Preliminary results showed that the AF2240 reduced the cell viability at 24 hpi to 57% and 49% in normoxic and hypoxic conditions, respectively whilst V4-UPM reduced it to 76% and 72%. These results are comparable to the observation in the cell morphological study. The results obtained showed that bothvelogenic and lentogenic strains demonstrated on colytic activity towards osteosarcoma cancer cell.However, thevelogenic strain is the most promising candidate that can be used as an alternative treatment against osteosarcoma cell in future. Keywords: Oncolytic, NDV, osteosarcoma cancer, hypoxic, normoxic, velogenic, lentogenic
Malachite green (MG) is used in aquaculture since the 1930s. However, since it was reported as a potential carcinogen, the use of MG has been banned by the US FDA. In Asian countries, many farmers are still using this chemical because they could not find an alternative that is as efficient and cheap as MG. In this study, the effects of MG when exposed to sub-lethal treatment in red tilapia were studied. The effects of MG in red tilapia have not been well documented despite the fact that red tilapia is popularly cultured in this century. When red tilapia were exposed to 0.05µg/L of MG for 60 days, there were no significant differences in the survival rate, weight gain and specific growth rate between the treatment and control group. For the haematological parameters, significant differences were observed in the total plasma protein and total immunoglobulin on day 50. Similarly, in the spleen, there were significant differences in the level of malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione and catalase activity on day 50. However, on day 60, there were no significant differences in the haematological, malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione and catalase activity between the control and treatment group which shows that the fish is able to adapt to the level of stress.
Penz Penz Kwan is a 4th year PhD student at Universiti Putra Malaysia. She received a Bachelor’s degree in Science in Agrotechnology(Aquaculture) from University Malaysia Terengganu. Her current field placement is at the Aquatic Animal Health Unit, of the Veterinary Faculty, UPM. She is interested in aquatic biotechnology, immunology and fish breeding.