Conference Schedule

Day 01 full schedule

Jun 15, 2020

Plenary Talks

Title: New Concepts in Forensic Investigation


Abstract


New Concepts in Forensic Investigation Dr. Henry Lee Henry Lee Institute of Forensic Science University of New Haven, USA Contemporary law enforcement has greatly expanded its ability to solve crimes by the adoption of advanced forensic techniques and standardized crime scene procedures. Today, crimes often can be solved by the combinations detailed examination of the crime scene and analysis of forensic evidence and reconstruction of the crime scene. Knowledge of forensic evidence is not only crucial in criminal investigations and prosecutions, but also vital in civil litigations, major man-made and natural disasters, and the investigation of global crimes. In addition to traditional detective work, the new concept of the successful solving of cases is based upon a system which combine the following six elements; 1.Crime Scene Analysis, 2.Advanced Forensic Technology, 3.Victim, Suspect and Witness Informatics , 4.Public Information Gathering 5.Big Data Mining, 6.Intelligence Analytics The advanced investigative skills (such as GPS positioning, Cell phone tracking, Social network, E-evidence, Video image analysis, Big Date Analytics, Artificial intelligence, Theory formation, NG DNA typing, Trace Evidence Analysis Pattern Evidence Recognition and Crime Reconstruction) will be discussed, and the ability to observe and analysis of crime scene and Forensic Evidence and the utilization of the open and close sources of big data bases and the theory of Cloud data mining will also be covered, Famous cases will be utilized to illustrate the importance of application of new concepts in criminal Investigation.


Biography


Dr. Lee isthe director of Forensic Institute and Distinguished Chair Professor in Forensic Science of the University of New Haven. He was the Chief Emeritus for the Connecticut State Police (2000-2010), Commissioner of Connecticut State Public Safety (1998 to 2000) and Chief Criminalist (1978 -20000. Dr. Lee was the driving force in establishing a modern state police communication system, Community based police, sex offender and DNA databank, major crime investigation concepts and advanced forensic science services in Connecticut. Dr. Lee has authored hundreds of articles ,co-authored more than 40 books, covering the areas, such as; DNA, Fingerprints, Trace Evidence, Crime Scene Investigation and Crime Scene Reconstruction. He is the author of some best sellers, such as Famous Crimes Revisited, Cracking Cases: the science of solving crime. His textbooks: Forensic Science, Physical Evidence and Henry Lee�s Crime Scene Handbook have been widely adopted in medical legal and forensic professions. He has appeared in many TV shows and movies. His new television series, Trace Evidence � Dr. Henry Lee File has received high ratings and broadcasted around the world. Dr. Lee has been the recipient of numerous medals and awards, including the 1996 Medal of Justice from the Justice Foundation, and the 1998 Lifetime Achievement Award from the Science and Engineer Association. He has also been the recipient of the Distinguished Criminalist Award from the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS); the J. Donero Award from the International Association of Identification and in 1992 was elected a distinguished Fellow of the AAFS. He has also received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the American College of Forensic Examiners (ACFE) in 2000, Medal of Honor by the Ellis Island Foundation in 2004, Congressional Recognition for Outstanding services by the US Congress in 2004, Presidential Medal of Honor by the President of Croatia in 2005, Medal of Service from the Ministry of Interior, Taiwan, ROC in 2006, and Gusi Peace Award from the Philippines in 2008.

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Henry Lee

University of New Haven
USA

Keynote Talks

Title: E-BABE- The Importance of Simulated Reproduction of Facts in Cases of Violent Death.


Abstract


The Simulated Reproduction of Facts(SRF)is an expert procedure provided at the 7th Article of the Brazilian Penal Process Code, held in contexts where there are doubts about the way a specific crime occurred. It aims to identify if a particular action occurred or not as described by the parties evolved, impartially. It the state of Para, in the Brazilian Amazon, the SRF has been a widely used expert methodology and has been able to clarify doubts about the participation of individuals evolved in criminal actions, being the author, co-author, victim or witness. Through SRF it has been possible to both innocent accused people, as identify criminal conducts that can aggravate or even mitigate penalties. The methodology developed in cases that SRF performance is needed is divided in three parts: Anti-SRF Phase, which consists of a detailed analysis of the police inquiry, Inter-SRF phase, where the strategy planning to be used in the present case is performed, and the third phase, that is the report preparation where the compared occurs between what was produced before and during the SRF. In 2019,in the State of Para, on average, a monthly SRF was held and the results have been quite satisfactory, with criminals having their sentences aggravated, in addition to clarifying and acquitting accused persons of having taken action, that after the SRF accomplishment, were evidenced as innocent.


Biography


Mariluzio Araujo Moreira da Silva is Master in Bioanthropology in the research line of Genetic and Forensic Anthropology by the Federal University of Para. Forensic Criminologist of the Center of Scientific Expertise Renato Chaves-Brazil (CPC RC) and professor of the Federal Institute of Education Science and Technology of Para (IFPA). As a researcher, he studies Forensic Anthropology and the relationship between violence, health and education, he has done more than 300 expertise in violent death cases and participated in more than 50 SRF. He coordinated the largest and only SRF made inside a prison in Brazil.

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Mariluzio Araujo Moreira da Silva

Federal Institute of Technical Education of Para
Brazil

Title: Net-profiling: Understanding the Behavioural Differentiations Between the Real and the Virtual Space to make Predictions in Cyber Defence


Abstract


Cybercrime has been growing rapidly for years, organizing itself and cementing its transversal universe, leaving no country to protect itself against cyber attacks ranging from phishing to terrorism. Whereas investigations are practiced in the virtual with the same model as the real one by privileging the technical Forensic to the behavioral, these approaches make the game of the cybercriminals of which it is occulted that they are human ! Ingenious human who feel more powerful behind the screen, have created a world with norms, languages, codes and laws specific to their virtual universe. Humans who have developed behavioral potentials according to their desire, character, state of mind, potential, expectation, etc. modifying their profile. These humans change their behavior which is sometimes reproduced, in whole or in part, in reality. This has significant implications for understanding cybercriminals in order to better comprehend them and predict their objectives, evaluate Modus Operandi and signatures, and detect differentiating behaviors to predict their future actions. This conference will show you that net-profiling and my research about Behavioral Differentiation Between Real to Virtual Space must integrate cyber investigations.


Biography


Nadine Touzeau is profiler, net-profiler and researcher in behavior of cybercriminals. Two scientific books "Net-profiling" (2015 and 2018) has become a reference in several research and teaching laboratories in the world. From November 2017 to November 2018, she has published 9 scientific (more have being published since) articles in American journals Behavior Differentiations Between Real to Virtual Space and has revealed 4 theories. She was a professor at Gendarmerie School at Madagascar and Criminology Institute in France. Graduate Paul Ekman International (International Diploma at Legal value, Signs Detection, dispensed to the CIA, FBI, Scotland Yard, etc.) and Professor in net-profiling at ESGI, Digital high school, Paris.

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Nadine Touzeau

Profiler, Net-Profiler-Behavioral and Environmental Analyst-Researcher
France

Sessions:

Title: Analysis of the Effectiveness of Machine Learning Algorithms for Age-At-Death Estimation


Abstract


Identification of a person is a relevant, significant problem. Estimation a biological age of unknown person is a priority stage in forensic expertise and multiple regression equations are used for it. This is not always justified from the attitude of the modern intellectual technologies. Authors suggest to use innovative techniques based on algorithms of machine learning to improve methodological approach for solving this problem. For existing databases containing a different set of signs of age-related changes, a comparative analysis of the quality of machine algorithms in determining the age of a person was carried out: the support vector method, the stochastic gradient method, the decision tree, the nearest neighbors method, the naive Bayes classifier, a multilayer neural network and a random algorithm the woods. Based on a comparative analysis of machine learning methods for solving forensic problems in determining the age of a person, the following algorithms were selected that showed the best results: decision trees and their modification - a random forest algorithm, as well as multilayer neural networks. From the available data set (histomorphometric parameters characterizing age-related changes in various organs and tissues), the most suitable signs for work were selected using decision trees, as a result of which the space of signs was halved. It is proved that the establishment at the initial stage of sex using Multi-label classification, and then the age group, significantly increases the accuracy of classification when determining the age of a person.


Biography


Prof. Yuri Pigolkin, MD, Member-Correspondent Russian Academy of Sciences, Head of Department of Forensic Medicine (Sechenov University), Chairman of Expert Council of Forensic Medicine of Russia Supreme Attestation Commission, invited Professor of Xian Jiaotong University, China. He has published more than 300 papers, including textbooks, atlases, monographs, manuals on forensic medicine, etc.

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Yuri Pigolkin

Sechenov University
Russia

Title: Utilizing Zar-Proâ„¢ Fluorescent Lifters to Enhance and Preserve Blood and other Proteinaceous Impression Evidence


Abstract


Blood and other proteinaceous impressions are important physical evidence commonly found associated with violent criminal activity, and are likely present at crime scenes and even on the skin of assault victims. Although this vital evidence is present, proteinaceous impressions may not be detected or recovered due to limitations with current enhancement methods. A novel product, Zar-Proâ„¢ Fluorescent Lifters have been used to lift, enhance, and preserve blood, semen and saliva-based impressions from a variety of substrates, including living human and decedent skin. Recovered impressions are preserved on the Zar-Proâ„¢ Fluorescent Lifters, which areinherently fluorogenic in combination with the proteinaceous impressions when visualized with a 505nm alternate light source and an orange barrier filter. The fluorescent capabilities of the Zar-Proâ„¢ Fluorescent Lifters allow for the visualization of ridge details in aged blood impressions, as well as semen and saliva-based impressions, which are not visible under normal lighting conditions.


Biography


Jessica Zarate, MS is an Assistant Professor in the Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC) accredited undergraduate Forensic Science Program at Madonna University, Michigan, USA. She is a former police officer and the inventor of the Zar-Proâ„¢ Fluorescent Lifters. She is a National Institute of Justice (NIJ) funded researcher, with her research primarily focused within the impression discipline, publishing on a fluorogenic method for lifting, enhancing, and preserving bloody and other proteinaceous impression evidence, recovering bloody impressions from difficult substrates, including from human skin, and defining methods to create consistent and reproducible fingerprint impressions.

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Jessica L. Zaratz

Madonna University
USA

Title: Recent Developments in Investment Fraud and Scams: Contracts for Difference (CFD) Spread Betting and Binary Options and Foreign Exchange (Forex) Sometimes Collectively Known as Forbin – The UK Experience.


Abstract


This paper discusses investor trading schemes for CFDs, spread betting, binary options and forex, what are effectively financial derivatives, designed for investors to speculate on market movements. It is argued that it is not possible for investors to consistently beat the market unless they have inside information and frequent trading will result in losses. It is also shown how these derivatives are used in scams and frauds designed to dupe naive investors. The final section of the paper examines how the UK regulators, principally the Financial Services Authority (later the Financial Conduct Authority) have attempted to combat fraud and abuse and their prosecuting and preventative efforts.


Biography


Paul Barnes is Director of Paul Barnes and Associates Ltd (www.paulbarnes.org.uk) which conducts paid expert witness and forensic accounting services in areas of financial crime.He has acted as an expert witness in most of the large, high-profile insider dealing, market abuse and boiler room share scams criminal trials in the UK since 2000, He has also acted in a number of civil cases and claims, either as an expert witness or a single joint expert in respect of various financial disputes. Between 2011 and 2015, he was Visiting Professor in the Department of Accounting and Corporate Governance at Macquarie University, Sydney and prior to that, Professor of Finance and Fraud Risk Management at Nottingham Business School in the UK. Professor Barnes is a member of the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE) a Chartered Certified Accountant and has degrees in history, management science, and a Ph.D. in economics. He has written numerous papers in academic journals and a number of books including Stock Market Efficiency, Insider Dealing and Market Abuse and the ACFEs UK edition of the Fraud Examiners Manual. More recently, he has written papers on contracts for Difference (CFD) spread betting and binary options and cryptocurrency.For further information see www.paulbarnes.org.uk.

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Paul Barnes

Paul Barnes and Associates Ltd
United Kingdom

Title: Biological Aspects and Genotoxicity Assessment of Plant Extracts Used in Popular Medicine


Abstract


Plant extracts have been traditionally used as human phytotherapeutics. Cyrtopodiumflavum, for example, is used to heal skin lesions in the Brazilian folk medicine, and is focus of research due to the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The pseudo bulbs of Cyrtopodiumglutiniferum, an orchid species found in Brazilian southeastern rainforest, are known to synthesize anti-inflammatory compounds, such as glucomannans and other potentially therapeutic compounds. We have reported the first metabolomic analysis focused on the phenols expression of the neotropical orchid CyrtopodiumglutiniferumRaddi, besides free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities, and the genotoxicity properties of the aqueous extract. Myrciariacauliflora, known as jabuticabeira, is a fruit tree found in several regions in Brazil. Its leaves, traditionally used to treat respiratory and digestive disorders, have shown great antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. We investigated the phenolic composition of M. cauliflorahydromethanolic extract (MCME), its genotoxic and cytotoxic potential, as well its effects against Trypanosomacruzi. The safety profile of MCME was accessed by an internationally recommended genotoxicity assay and the results suggest that the extract has a high probability of being safely used for human consumption and your application for Trypanosomacruzi can be a viable option.


Biography


Israel Felzenszwalbhas completed his PhD at Paris VI University in 1992 working at InstitutGustaveRoussy and previously was a visiting researcher at Stanford University School of Medicine, Radiology Department. He is a full professor at State University of Rio de Janeiro where he has been Director of the Biology Institute and Coordinator of Graduation Programs in Biosciences and Environment. He has published more than 100 papers in reputed journals and has been advising many masters and PhD students CV: http://lattes.cnpq.br/8132847165466920.

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Israel Felzenszwalb

State University of Rio de Janeiro
Brazil

Title: Development of Audio Forensic Science in Penal Processes in Peru, 2020


Abstract


The study analyzes the increasing use of audio forensic science as a key tool in criminal investigations in Peru. The research has a quantitative and descriptive approach. The materials of the research were the final audio reports, as well as the digital audio files of each report during the year 2018 and 2019. The study applied the techniques of documentary analysis of the expert reports and the acoustic analysis of the digital audio files. The results show that forensic audio science is used increasingly in cases of corruption offenses committed by public servants in Peru; and that the international regulation is not applied consistently by many experts. Finally, because this area of audio forensics is in constant development in Peru, it needs more research and the forensic experts require more specialization in methodology and the application of international regulation.


Biography


Luigi Rodriguez Rocha is an Audio Forensic Expert from the Altiplano University in Peru. At the present, he is head of Laboratories Research in Audio and Video in the Faculty of Social Communication Sciences. He is a member of the editorial Committee of the Technology and Communication Journal. He is Dr. in Social Sciences.

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Luigi Rodriguez Rocha

Altiplano University of Puno
Peru

Day 02 full schedule

Jun 16, 2020

Keynote Talks

Title: E-BABE- An Overview of the Field of Forensic Anthropology in Brazil: Perspectives and Challenges for the XXI Century.


Abstract


This work is an analysis of the current situation of the area of Forensic Anthropology (FA) in Brazil. The data was collected between 2014 and 2016 among all official forensic institutions in the country. The authors sent via email to the chiefs of agencies a questionnaire with questions regarding aspects of the infrastructure as well as the training and operation of the forensic experts in all states of the country. 88.9% of the official criminal investigation institutes of Brazil sent their responses, making this the most significan survey of its kind to date. The data were treated with descriptive statistics and revealed that FA as a field of expertise is not yet institutionalized in all federal units. Despite some advances in research and methodology in most states, there is a lack of investment in infrastructure, equipment, and technical training of the personnel. The authors identified the need to build adequate laboratories, train forensic experts and specific teams to operate in FA in all Brazilian criminal investigation units, and to dedicate a greater attention to field work when dealing with forensic cases. These measures are considered fundamental to help reduce the large number of unsolved crimes in the nation.


Biography


Mariluzio Araujo Moreira da Silva is Master in Bioanthropology in the research line of Genetic and Forensic Anthropology by the Federal University of Para. Forensic Criminologist of the Center of Scientific Expertise Renato Chaves-Brazil (CPC RC) and professor of the Federal Institute of Education Science and Technology of Para (IFPA). As a researcher, he studies Forensic Anthropology and the relationship between violence, health and education, he has done more than 300 expertise in violent death cases and participated in more than 50 SRF. He coordinated the largest and only SRF made inside a prison in Brazil.

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Mariluzio Araujo Moreira da Silva

Federal Institute of Technical Education of Para
Brazil.

Sessions:

Title: Mikra Risk Assessment for Ideology-Based Terrorist Offenders


Abstract


Eighteen psychological criminogenic risk factors have been identified in formulating risk assessment for religious terrorist offenders. The risk factors are grouped into three higher order domains: Motivation, Ideology, and Capability. However, the instrument, called as ‘MIKRA’, had not been validated quantitatively. This study aimed to examine the validity of MIKRA Risk Assessment in investigating risk of ideology-based terrorist offenders. The study involved thirty-seven terrorist offenders at a high-security prison in Indonesia. The result shows that the offenders’ MIKRA scores are correlated significantly with their risk categories given by the official terrorism investigators; which means MIKRA can be solely applied to investigate risks of ideology-based terrorist offenders. The study may be used by terrorism practitioners responsible for the identification of offenders and the design of intervention in preventing recidivism.


Biography


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Zora A. Sukabdi

Jenderal Achmad Yani University
Indonesia

Title: Forensic Examination of Bloodstain Patterns (Experiments, Interpretations and Analysis)


Abstract


Background: Blood behaves conferring to certain scientific principles; appearance of bloodstains seem to be a randomly distributed at a crime scene but stains can be categorized by collecting information from spatter patterns, transfers, voids and other marks that support investigators in recreating the sequence of events that occurred after bloodshed and analyst requires to recognize and interpret patterns to determine how those patterns were created. The experiments of study focused on practical application of bloodstain patterns analysis during crime scene reconstruction and analysis. Different techniques of blood shedding/ dropping procedures, scientific calculations and measurements during bloodstain patterns analysis (BPA) were applied referring to the international protocols established by scientific working group on bloodstains patterns (SWAGSTAIN). Objectives: Throughout the experiments, the blood dropping, calculations, measurements, interpretation and analysis of bloodstain patterns and reconstructions exercises were performed on different surfaces including; cement, ceramic and wall surfaces to exemplify the possible blood involving crime scenes to determine a best method that can be applied to provide accurate, actual and effectual results to upgrade the integrity and reliability of scientific evidences in Rwandan court of law. Methods: Research study analysis concentrated on the calculation of angle of impact, area of origin of bloodstain, direction, and height of an origin of bloodstains as well as type of a bloodstain patterns hence reconstruction of scene to determine the position, direction and location of persons/ objects during deposition of blood that can lead to the correlations of events. Results: Interpretation and analysis made discussed, the known parameters used during an exercise (angles:(900, 450 & 15o) and distances:( 0.20m, 0.5m, 1m & 1.7m)) were compared to the trigonometric method parameters results after experiment and also to the parameters measured results after exercises of reconstructions. And discussion focused on the real cause of variations including: laws of motion, external factors like air resistance, gravitational potential and so on. Conclusion: The comparison between the literature hypothesis and the practical results. All methods applied are productive and valuable but best one is Trigonometric as discussed and possible challenges were anticipated. Therefore, scientific evidence-based practice should be nurtured in Rwanda, East African region and worldwide as BPA is of its complete part assimilated.


Biography


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Kagame Fred

Kacyiru Hospital
Rwanda

Title: Review of the Development of Forensic Science Standards in China


Abstract


The standardization of forensic sciences are of great significance for improving the accuracy and reliability of inspection and identification results, ensuring the value of evidence, and preventing human error. The development of forensic science standards shall be based on scientific and technological research and practical experience, while in-depth investigation and demonstrations, shall be carried out and opinions be widely solicited, to ensure that standards are reasonable, normative and updated, and to ensure their quality. In China, the national standards and industry standards in the field of forensic science are developed by the National Technical Committee on Forensic Sciences of Standardization Administration of China. (SAC/TC 179). 432 standards that have been promulgated are widely used in the law enforcement system of China. It has greatly improved the standardization and legalization level of forensic science work. This paper reviews the main bodies working on standards for forensic science in China, specifically discusses the work of SAC/TC 179, the current work program for the development of forensic science standards. Also discussed, are some problems in the planning, writing, application and management of forensic science standardization in China. In the future, we will focus on unifying the forensic science standardization management system, enhancing the division of labour with individual responsibility, optimizing the standard system structure, improving the quality of standards, and strengthening the supervision of standards implementation.


Biography


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Ning Zhang

Institute of Forensic Science
China

Title: Finger as a Tool for Stature Estimation in a South Indian Population


Abstract


Stature is one of the parameters which help in the identification of an unknown individual. India is a big country with diverse ethnic groups present along its length and breadth. No single formula is applicable to the different population groups for estimating the stature from the finger lengths in unidentified individuals. Hence this study was undertaken to estimate the stature from the finger lengths of both hands in both the sexes in a south Indian population. A total of 500 subjects in the age group between 21 to 60 years of the said population were recruited for the study. Mean stature in the males and females were 168.35 cm and 162.14 cm respectively. Statistically significant correlation coefficients (p<0.001) were observed for correlation between stature and the different finger length measurements in males and females. Correlation coefficient values were found to be higher in males than females. In males, the highest correlation value (r) was found for the right middle finger (0.372) and least for the right little finger (0.282). In females, the highest and lowest correlation values were observed in the right little (0.271) and right middle finger (0.186) respectively. Linear and multiple regression equations were derived for estimating stature from various finger measurements of both sides in males and females. The standard error of estimate was observed to be lower in males when compared to females, indicating that the male fingers give a better estimate of stature than the female fingers.


Biography


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Siddhartha Das

Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research
India

Title: Modeling the Lesional Mechanisms Involved During Strangulation: Influence of Biological Variability and Various Types of Solicitation


Abstract


Strangulation is a violent act which can be lethal and is often studied in forensic context. The main question concerns the mechanisms leading to the lesions observed on the anatomical structures during autopsies.Death by strangulation is principally due to vascular compression or air obstruction [1], but sometimes it is possible to observe fractures (mainly of hyoid bone and/or larynx) [2-3]. The aim of our study is to analyze the mechanical behavior of the different anatomical elements and their interactions with one another during a neck compression, using numerical models and including biological variability [4-5]. This study should help forensic medicine to better understand the injury mechanisms in case of death by strangulation. The numerical models, for both sexes, include the hyoid bone, the larynx, infrahyoid muscles, the sternocleidomastoid muscles, the jugular veins, the carotid arteries, the vertebras (C3 to C5) and the skin. The influence of age was taken into account by modeling bone and larynx ossification. For the solicitation, there are different strangulation technics that can be studied (one hand, using a pipe, etc.). Stress analysis and fracture observation on the numerical model were compared to the lesions that can be find in literature and/or observed during the autopsies. The first results show an important influence of the environment on the behavior of neck elements, which is different from previous studies on isolated anatomical part [3-6-7]. Furthermore, the biological variability can affect the morphology and the mechanical properties of the different elements. This study will demonstrate the use of biomechanics in a forensic context.


Biography


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Caroline Gagnon

Laboratory of Applied Biomedicine
France

Title: Analysis of Mutation Rate of 17 Y-Chromosome Short Tandem Repeats Loci using Tanzanian Father-Son Paired Samples


Abstract


The interpretation of DNA evidence in forensic analysis and paternity testing is based on the similarities or differences at a genetic loci used. Since the spontaneous mutations in the germline of the putative father at any genetic marker locus used in the analysis can lead to an erroneous exclusion. Therefore the aim of the present study was to determine the mutation rate of Tanzanian population using 17YSTRs loci commonly used in forensics. In our study, hundred unrelated father-son buccal swab sample pairs collected from consented Tanzanian population were examined to establish mutation rates using 17 Y-STRs loci of the AmpFlSTRYfiler kit commonly used in forensics. Father-son pair biological relationships were confirmed using 15 autosomal STRs markers and found to be paternally related. Using 17 YSTRs loci, a total of four single repeat mutational events were observed between father and sons. Two mutations resulted in the gain of a repeat and the other two resulted in a loss of a repeat in the son. All observed mutations occurred at tetra nucleotide loci DYS389II, DYS385a, and DYS385b. The locus specific mutation rate varied between 0 and 1.176 x10−3and the average mutation rate of 17Y-STRs loci in the present study was 2.353x10−3 (6.41x10−4-6.013x10−3) at 95% CI. Based on the findings of the observed mutation rates in this study, the precise and reliable understanding of mutation rate at Y-chromosome STR loci is necessary for a correct evaluation and interpretation of DNA typing results in forensics and paternity testing involving males.


Biography


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Fidelis Charles Bugoye

Government Chemist Laboratory Authority
Tanzania

Title: Solving Dauberts Dilemma for the Forensic Sciences through Blind Testing


Abstract


Ten years after the landmark report by the National Academy of Sciences on the state of forensic science, little progress has been made to provide a statistical foundationto demonstrate (or disprove) the scientific validity of the forensic disciplines. . This is especially problematic in the comparative disciplines such as latent print identification and firearm examination, which were criticized in the 2016 report from U.S. President Obama’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. Policymakers,scientists and scholars have all urged the forensic science community to develop statistical methods to measure error rates in these disciplines. To date, a few proposals have emerged that would provide objective measures for estimating error rates in some forensic disciplines. However, as the American Statistical Association has recently stated, “Currently, not all forensic disciplines can support statistical statements.” This lack of statistical foundation represents the most pressing failing of forensic science as a whole at this time. Without reliable information about how often forensic scientists get the wrong answer, the probative value of forensic evidence is impossible to assess. This paper describes a major breakthrough in developing a statistical foundation for all of the forensic disciplines: a cutting-edge blind proficiency testingprogram operating in six disciplines at the Houston Forensic Science Center (HFSC) . By introducing mock evidence samples into the ordinary workflow of its laboratory analysts, the HFSC has begun to develop statistical data that will allow it to calculate error rates for those disciplines.We provide specific details regarding how the program operates in HFSC's toxicology, firearms and latent prints divisions, and discuss both the challenges and benefits the laboratory has experienced because of the blind proficiency testing program. We propose that criminal justice stakeholders should urge other forensic laboratoriesto implement similar blind proficiency testing programs to developthe statistical dataneeded to prove the scientific validity ofthe forensic disciplines.


Biography


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Sandra Guerra Thompson

University of Houston Law Center
USA

Title: Suicide Note; The Last Words


Abstract


Suicide note also known as death note is message left by someone who intends to commit suicide.The present study analyses the content of note and inherent message in it which may be useful for suicide prevention programmes. It is important piece of evidence in investigation of death so should be looked by forensic experts. Detailed information regarding the deceased and circumstances of death were obtained using psychological autopsy and history obtained from police and inquest papers submitted by police for postmortem examination. Various findings that how,where,by whom,to whom ,age,sex of suicide note leaver were analysed.Mood present in note,reason ,and content of the note were also analysed .Findings like notes were majority handwritten in english ,age group of 21-25,,not addressed to someone .maximum did not specify the reason for suicide and blamed no one for the act majority showed anger ,guilt ,hopelessness , shame and a mix of positive and negative affect.There are very few studies pertaining to suicide note in Indian subcontinent.More studies are warranted for further investigations


Biography


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Shalini Girdhar

Abvmis & Rml Hospital
India

Title: Roles of DNA Molecules in Identification of Unclaimed Or Missing Dead Bodies Presumed Death in Western Kenya Utilizing Comparison Standards


Abstract


Medico-legal approaches form bench-mark of health determinants and provide integrated services towards criminal justice support in health. Globally, over 44 million cases of unclaimed bodies or missing dead persons (UCBOMDPs) occur annually, 88% of these cases are in Sub Saharan Africa. In Kenya and western Kenya, the rate of UCBOMDPs from road traffic accidents accounts 30% and 10% presumed dead respectively, 80% of these UCBOMDPs are associated with limited access to affordable quality comparison tests for identifications, thus increasing numbers of demographic data of different manner, and actual causes of deaths in Population health, attributed to the increased prevalence of health and occupational hazards in population health. The current investigations aimed at identifying UCBOMDPs from public mortuaries, by quantifying their demographic data, manner and actual causes of dead and determining comparison tests of DNA finger print (Dactylography) and chemical DNA, electrophoresis. In Exploratory and cross sectional, 235 respondents were investigated through purposive and saturated sampling using Finger print forms, structured questionnaires, focus group discussions (FGDs), observations and key informant interviews (KII) guides to collect data. Analyzed statistical inferences and contents analysis to saturation, results showed, 94% of mortuary service providers in tier 4 were primary and secondary education drop outs of males, on contract jobs with limited access to quality services in mortuary science, contrarily to females and males counterparts from tiers 5 and 6 mortuary facilities on permanent and trained. Rate of gross infection in public mortuaries and congestions had significant, OD, (2.2, 0.44). Prevalence of male being admitted as UCBOMDPs was significant due to being family bread winners, OD (8.3, 0.12), RR (0.33), 95% CI (1.23, 1.02), significance were associated with male deliberately leaving IDs in houses due to identity. Utilization of Dactylography was significant, than electrophoresis method, P value (0.67), OD (4.8, 1.3) due to high costs, procedures, DNA quantifying reagents and next of kin sampling for comparisons. Need for quality service advocacy in Department of Forensic Pathology to develop subsidized functional DNA chemical structures and enhanced Public, Private Partnership (PPP) to make DNA identification methods accessible, affordable and reality to low earners community households.


Biography


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Maurice B. Silali

Maseno University
Kenya.

Title: A Microbial Approach for Personal Identification


Abstract


Forensic Microbiology deals with tracking down the original source of the microbes. The locard’s exchange principle tells that the exchange of material occurs when two objects comes in contact with each other. By considering the principle as a base for research, the intra variations within the communities and intra person variations of bacteria and fungi will be studied in 5 different communities by profession. The present investigation aims at studying how the working environments affect the bacterial community on the hand and whether it is transferred on the objects that we touch. The communities from whom the bacterial samples were collected were Housekeeping staff of the college, Construction Workers, Rag pickers, Hospital ward boys and Morgue workers. Right hand palm, left hand palm, right hand fingers, left hand fingers impressions and mobile swabs were collected from these 5 different communities on nutrient agar medium. The pure cultures were obtained on nutrient agar medium and the Gram’s staining was carried out. Apart from bacterial samples the hair samples were also collected and keratinophilic fungi were grown on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar medium. Pure cultures were isolated and microscopic examination was carried out by lactophenol cotton blue staining. The findings till now showed the dominance of Gram positive cocci in clusters followed by Gram positive bacilli in chains and some of the Gram negative coccobacilli in singles were also observed in all the communities. In fungal cultures Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp. were predominant and few isolates of Fusarium spp. were also found.


Biography


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Ruddhida Vidwans

Jain Universit
India

Title: Determining the Biodiversity of Actinomycetes Species in Blood Exposed Soil using 16S Rrna Analysis


Abstract


Forensic microbiology has been used as new method to examine crime scenes however, no comprehensive research have been conducted in determining the effects of human blood on soil Actinomycete bacteria. Hence, the purpose of this study is to determine if exposing soil to human blood will result in any changes to the diversity of the pre-existing Actinomycete’s population of the soil. The scene of the crime was located at the garden of the Biology department of the Faculty of Science, in Ankara University Tandogan campus. Two samples were taken after one week of exposure; one served a control sample, free of blood. Bacteria was isolated from the two soil samples, using dilution and plaque technique methods. Optimized GYME agar was inoculated and incubated at 28⁰C for 14 days. Genomic DNA was then isolated using CTAB technique and PCR was used to amplify the 16s rRNA gene region. The control showed no presence of Actinomycete bacteria however, the sample from the blood exposed soil showed strong presence of bacteria that is morphologically like that of Actinomycete, or rare Actinomycete. Using 16s rRNA analysis we will then determine the species of bacteria present in the blood exposed soil sample. The results can then be used in future crime scene investigation of cases. The findings of this study nonetheless, require further research in order to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the effect of human blood on soil.


Biography


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Hiba Abdalla

Ankara University
Turkey

Title: An Effective Electrochemical Sensor Based on Graphene/Ag Nanoparticles for Rapid Determination of Methadone in Human Blood Serum


Abstract


Methadone is a synthetic analgesic drug which was reported as an active agent in opiate substitution therapy in 1965. Besides, like other opioid medications, methadone has the potential for abuse. It has also used for other medical purposes. These applications make the need to monitor the methadone concentration in biological matrices for clinical and forensic purposes in the prevention of drug abuse and unintentional overdose. Herein, methadone was determined in phosphate buffer media using a glassy carbon electrode modified with two layer of a nanocomposite consists of graphene/Ag nanoparticles ((Gr/AgNPs)2/GCE). The morphology of nanocomposite modified electrode was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The voltammetric behavior of methadone at purposed electrode was evaluated using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetric techniques. The oxidation of methadone was irreversible and showed a diffusion controlled process at the (Gr/AgNPs)2/GCE. The effect of various experimental parameters including pH, scan rate, and etc. on the voltammetric response of methadone was studied. As-fabricated electrode exhibited an improved catalytic activity with a peak potential at +0.79 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) for methadone oxidation. The high performance of this hybrid electrode is due to the presence of a synergistic effect between AgNPs and Gr at their interface. Additionally, the proposed electrode displayed suitability for sub-micromolar detection (LOD of 0.18 µM), high selectivity in the presence of common interferences and efficiency for application in human blood serum as real sample.


Biography


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Samaneh Nabavi

Police Sciences and Social Studies Institute
Iran

Title: BioMedical Engineering Human Factors Performance of Pedestrian and Vehicular Threat Identification in Autonomous Vehicles and Judicial Implications


Abstract


Autonomous vehicles (AVs) have great potential to advance automotive industry safety. One main objective is to decrease accidents and fatalities caused by human drivers. Human error, errors dealing with recognition and decisions, may cause over 75% of all vehicle collisions; thus, analysis and understanding of biomedical engineering human factors are vital components for AVs. Effective detection and response to surroundings, especially given the wide bandwidth of physical characteristics of pedestrians, bicycles, and scooters, is paramount. Common classes of sensors are visible-light cameras, light detection and ranging, and radar (infrared imagining technology). Individually, sensing abilities were not comparable to human detection, but with all three combined, these combined technologies are claiming to detect over 90% of preventable fatalities. Challenges for AVs in courtrooms include corporate liability. Legal landscapes involving AVs are complex in product liability law: negligence, strict liability, misrepresentations, breaches of warranty, and contract laws. Manufacturers may be liable for selling their products containing “unreasonably dangerous” defects even where manufacturers have “exercised all possible care in the preparation and sale” of their products. Liability insurance will vary with laws impleading manufacturers versus initiating separate legal actions against manufacturers. Guidelines on national and international levels are necessary to regulate AVs. Autonomous vehicles will revolutionize roadways and courts globally. Although sensing and detection may not be perfect, both automotive safety professionals and legal professionals are working diligently together worldwide to achieve these goals at the intersection of scientific technology and the law.


Biography


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Laura L. Liptai

Bio Medical Forensics, United States

Title: Toxicogenomics – A New Discipline to Study After-Effects of Methyl Isocyanate in Generations of Bhopal Gas Tragedy Survivors


Abstract


Bhopal gas tragedy known as world’s worst industrial disaster at Union carbide, Bhopal (M.P.), India occurred on 2-3 Dec 1984 after leaking of poisonous methyl isocyanate gas resulting in uncountable fatalities and its after-effects in survivors. Projects and studies were conducted on survivors of Bhopal gas tragedy and it was concluded to have long term effects and life threatening situations by methyl isocyanate exposure resulting in various genetic disorders and deformities in the generations. After 35 years with the newer technologies it is possible to study the genetic and chromosomal abnormalities with the genome sequencing under the sub-discipline of Toxicogenomics which opens a new opportunity to study the genetic abnormalities caused by a chemical compound which turned toxic. The Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), which gives deep sequencing results of an individual can be taken into consideration and a probability can be drawn to assist in the early diagnosis of the genetic abnormalities and their associated risk factors in the generation of Bhopal Gas tragedy survivors.


Biography


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Anita Yadav

All India Institute of Medical Sciences
India

Title: Scanning Electron Microscope: Emerging Tool for Forensic Examination of Damaged Clothing


Abstract


Scanning Electron Microscopy is the most advanced microscopic technique which utilizes a beam of electron instead of common light source in order to give the magnified image of the object. The preset study aims at providing an advanced approach of analyzing the different clothings damaged by sharp objects using Scanning Electron Microscope. All the samples were analysed using Nova Nano Sem 450 and from this study it can be concluded that the damage on the clothing can be correlated with the object of damage which will help in the recontruction of the crime scene by observing the fiber end morphology over the damaged area.Different objects/weapons were used in this study inorder to observe the possible damage on clothing material and it was found that the damage by a sharp blade can be easily differentiated by a serrated or steak knife using Scanning Electron Microscope.


Biography


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Nandini Katare

Shri Vaishnav Institute of Forensic Science
India