Our Planet contains abundant deposits of mineral resources that are structurally organized in the form of 2D solids, such as graphite and clays. Graphite has acquired a particular interest due to its exfoliation in graphene, i.e. carbon monolayers, whereas clay minerals resulting from the stacking of silicate sheets, which have been traditionally used in ceramic, pottery, bricks, etc., may be also subject to delamination processes. Graphene is essentially an electrically and thermally conductive material whereas clays are insulators, being an attractive challenge to controll the assembly between both components. Bottom-up and top-down synthetic strategies have been applied in the assembly of carbon and clay components to produce functional carbon-clay nanostructured materials. The first type of approaches is based on the thermal transformation of organic precursors (molecules or polymers) in the presence of diverse clays (montmorillonte, sepiolite, halloysite..) into carbonaceous materials. The top-down strategy consists in the direct assembly between the individual components, for instance multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and/or graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) to sepiolite fibrous clay by applying sonomechanical treatments. This lecture will report and discuss on the latest advances on carbon-clay systems deserving as advanced materials of great potentiality in applications as diverse as functional polymer composites, electrochemical devices and heterogeneous catalysis.
Eduardo Ruiz-Hitzky is currently Ad Honorem Research Professor at the ICMM-CSIC (Spain). PhD by the UCL (Louvain University, Belgium) and by the UCM (Complutense University of Madrid, Spain). Author of around 300 publications (more than 10,000 citations and H-index >50). Inventor of ca. 25 patents. Experience on Layered and Porous Inorganic Solids, Nanostructured Functional Materials, Hybrid, Intercalation Compounds & Nanocomposites. Editor-in-Chief of Recent Patents in Nanotechnology (Bentham Publ.). President and Honor Member of the Spanish Clay Society. Invited Professor at the Collège de France and Invited Lecturer at the MIT (USA). Awarded by the Academie Royale de Belgique, the National Academy of Sciences and the Ministry of Sugar of Cuba, the AIPEA medal (Tokyo, Japan), the Guillaume Budé Medal (Collège de France).
Traditional Portland cement can be effectively substituted by alkali-activated binders. Not only canalkali-activated binders save energy and reduce CO2 emission but they can also augment the durabilityperformance of concrete as well as aid in resolving the landfill problems. It is well-known that extensivequantities of calcined clay waste are created every year by the ceramic industry, of which a significantamount is used in landfills. It is thus more appropriate to reuse this waste efficiently. This study investigatedthe impacts on sustainability of ceramic tile waste powder (CTWP) based alkali-activated mortars(AAMs) incorporating fly ash (FA) as a replacement of ground blast furnace slag (GBFS), which wereexposed to various hostile environments. Binders were prepared by maintaining the CTWP content at50% in all alkali-activated mortars (AAMs) and FA replacing GBFS by 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%.Durability properties were evaluated which included elevated temperatures, sulphate and acid attack,drying shrinkage, freezing-thawing and wet-dry cycles, as well as water permeability. The findings suggestedthat freezing-thawing resistance increased and better durability was displayed by increasing theFA content in AAMs. Furthermore, AAMs with high FA content led to enhance the performance in terms ofsulphate and acid environments and elevated temperatures. Apart from the increased durabilityreplacingGBFS with FA and containing 50% CTWP,also resulted in decreased energy consumption, AAMs cost, and CO2 emission.
Professor Dr. Jahangir Mirza, speaking of 6 languages, is a senior scientist at Research Institute of Hydro-Québec's Research Facility in Montreal, Canada. He also worked as Professor and Adjunct Professor at UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia, Malaysia and McGill University, Canada. His research involvesAPPLIED R & D on materials not only to repair concrete structures, but also to develop new sustainable green products using wastesfor existing and future construction. He has authored and co-authored +200 publications and technical reports, two books and several book chapters. He is recipient of +30 national and international awards and honours(6 gold and one silver medals). He is a member Editorial Board of a Q1 Journal and member Advisory Board of international conference.
The amalgamation of a wide optical band gap photocatalyst with visible-light-active CdO quantum dots (QDs) as sensitizers is one of the most efficient ways to improve photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic performance of cadmium benzoate ((Cd(C7H5O2)2)3(CH3CN)1) is comprehensively investigated. The estimated optical band gap of cadmium benzoate is 2.64 eV and the EPc and EPv are about -0.09 V (vs. NHE) and +2.55 V (vs. NHE), respectively, which implies that cadmium benzoate possesses a high negative reduction potential of excited electrons due to its higher conduction band position, and hence, the locations of the conduction band minimum and the valence band maximum meet the redox capacity. Thus, this composite photocatalyst exhibits superior activity in visible-light-driven photocatalytic H2 evolution. We found that introducing the QDs enhance the photocatalytic performance towards the visible light region. The electronic band structure shows high k-dispersion bands around the Fermi level, which implies low effective masses, and hence, the high mobility carriers favor the enhancement of the charge transfer process. The mobility of the photogenerated carriers significantly influences the photocatalytic efficiency and the higher photogenerated carriers’ mobility enhances the photocatalytic performance. Moreover, the result shows a great effective mass difference between electrons (e-) and holes (h+), which can facilitate the e- and h+ migration and separation, and finally improve the photocatalytic performance. The large mobility difference is useful for the separation of e- and h+, the reduction of the e- and h+ recombination rate, and the improvement of the photocatalytic activity. Thus, cadmium benzoate exhibits rapid generation of e- – h+ pairs with photoexcitation and a high negative reduction potential of excited electrons due to its higher CB position. Based on these results one can conclude that cadmium benzoate satisfied all requirements to be an efficient photocatalyst. This will greatly improve the search efficiency and greatly help experimentalists in saving resources in the exploration of new photocatalysts with good photocatalytic performance.
Tremendous technological developments in the field of Internet of Things (IoT) have changed the way we live and work. Although the numerous advantages of IoTare enriching our society, it should be reminded that the IoT also contributes to toxic pollution, consumes energy and generates e-waste. These persistent issues place new stress on the smart world and environments. To enhance the benefits and reduce the harmful effects of IoT, there is an increasingly desired to move towards green IoT. Green IoT is seen as the environmentally friendly future of IoT. Therefore, it is necessary to put different desired measures to conserve environmental resources, reduce carbon footprints and promote efficient techniques for energy usage. It is the reason formoving towards green IoT, where the machines, sensors, communications, clouds, and internet operate in synergy towards the common goal of increased energy efficiency and reduced carbon emissions. This work presents a thorough survey of the current ongoing researchand potential technologies ofgreen IoT with an intention to provide some directions for future green IoT research
The microstructure evolution during the precipitation of droplets/particles in melt or solid has some similarity with the precipitation of droplets in the melt being the most complex. This phenomenon has great potentials in the development of the in situ particulate composites if one can control the process properly. In recent years, we developed a numerical model to describe the microstructure formation during the precipitation of droplets/particles and probed into the microstructure evolution during the precipitation of droplets/particles in the solid/liquid matrix. The model was applied to investigate the precipitation process of different types. The results demonstrate the microstructure formation process and the influence factors clearly. Based on these researches, different methods are successfully proposed to control the microstructure evolution during the precipitation of droplets/particles in the melt and promote the formation of a well dispersed composite microstructure.
J. Z. Zhao has completed his PhD from Harbin Institute of Technology, China. After that, he cuccessively worked in Chiba Institute of Technology (Japan) as a sinior visiting schorlar, in German Aerospace Center as a research fellow of Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, in University of Ghent (Belgium) as a research fellow. He wined Plan of Hundred Talent Persons (China) Fellowship in 2001 and began to work in IMR as a professor and group leader. He has published more than 200 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as the editorial board member for the journal of Scientific Report, etc.
Metal oxide nanostructured porous films atract interest in view to numerous advanced applications dealing with separation processes, selective catalysis, or as components of sensors, and electrochemical devices. Standard procedures of preparation are related to the use of soft-template synthetic approaches as the classical evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) method. This communication introduces a new approach for the preparation of supported nanostructured films following a two steps methodolgoy that allows the control of the textural organization of porosity along the film (1). In this way, titania nanostructured films were grown on silicon buffer supports by first deposited by dip-coating a layer of the template molecules (e.g., Pluronic 123), followed by deposition of a fresh metal-oxide gel precursor and then a thermal treatment to consolidate TiO2 anatase phase and to generate porosity by removing the template. By varying the contact time between the components and the relative humidity is possible to control the interdiffusion of components in the two coated layers leading to an organization of the templated specie across the witdh of the layer that leads to create non-symetric mesoporous structured films after calcination. The resulting nanoarchitectures were tested as photocatalysts but the method could be relevant to produce titania, as well as other oxide materials, of interest in diverse applications related to energy production, for instance in solar cells devices for hydrogen generation and storage, and lithium battery negative electrodes, where the use of mesoporous films exhibited enhanced usefulness.
Dr. Pilar Aranda is currently Senior Researcher at the Materials Science Institute of Madrid of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC). She is author of over 180 publications including book chapters. She has been General Secretary of the Spanish Clay Society. She is currently Co-Editor-in-Chief of Recent Patents in Nanotechnology, Associated Editor of Clay Minerals and Editorial Board Member of Applied Clays Science. Her research interests focus on nanostructured materials prepared by assembling of clay minerals to develop diverse nanoarchitectures including hybrid and biohybrid materials for various applications, such as adsorbents, catalysts, controlled drug delivery and electrochemical devices.
Current research work is in the field of innovative woven textiles made from composite materials for novel developments and applications. Innovations in weaving new forms of textiles are informed by rich relationship between geology and weaving. Exploring analogies and metaphors between both subjects uncovers an ongoing dialogue with potentially diverse and inventive outcomes. Curious to construct memory holding woven sculptures from unconventional mineral fibres – 100% quartz, carbon, basalt, clay, glass, copper, stainless steel and silk leads to undulating drapes, folds and pleats, playfully capturing geological features at macro, micro and referencing life scale geological forms. Weaving encompasses math, electronics, engineering and artistry. It is placed to consider structure, surface, properties and performance, leading to innovative outcomes with applications for arts related spheres, science, industry and culture. In 2016, an Australian National University Vice Chancellor Creative Fellowship facilitated inter-disciplinary collaboration with Professor Ian Jackson, ANU Director of Research School of Earth Science. Ideas, inspirations, processes, rich dialogue and outcomes from this project will also be presented.
Jennifer Robertson studied at West Surrey College of Art and Design, Royal College of Art, UK and Fondazione Arte della Seta Lisio, Florence, Italy. She has lectured in Japan, UK, Ukraine, Italy, Canada, USA, Denmark and Australia and has undertaken numerous international residencies. She lectures at the Australian National University School of Art & Design, Canberra and exhibits internationally. The recipient of many awards and grants, including an Australia Council Fellowship and artsACT Creative Fellowship. Works are held in public collections including Cooper Hewitt National Design Museum, USA, NUNO Corporation, Japan, National Gallery of Australia, Australia, and numerous international private collections.
. In recent years, automotive hose and belt specifications have changed, requiring longer product life in terms of swelling, wear and heat ageing. Diene-based rubbers, such as natural rubber (NR) and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), have been widely used in diverse industries. However, some apparent defects such as limited ageing resistance and large compression set, have been demonstrated in some rubbers cured by sulfur or peroxides. In the making of general and industrial rubber goods, short production and sufficient scorch time is crucial especially by using an injection moulding. In this work, blend of Epoxidised Natural Rubber (ENR 25) and Butadiene was developed with two types of curing systems namely Conventional and Efficient Vulcanisation system. The aim of the study is to produce a satisfactory heat resistance rubber compounds and adequate process safety for rubber manufacturing. Results showed that curing system applied significantly affected thermal stability property of the compounds. Modulus and hardness of the blends appeared to decrease progressively with ageing. However, greater thermal stability especially ageing at 100°C for 200h was observed with compound containing efficient curing system compared to conventional curing system which corresponded to the cross link density attributed by the torque value and dynamic mechanical analysis.
Compositional engineering with different crystal symmetries has been considered as an imperative approach to enhance the ferroelectric as well as piezoelectric properties. An evidence of tricritical triple point type morphotropic phase boundary (TMPB) in Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 based ternary solid solution (i.e. ((Bi0.5Na0.5)0.94Ba0.06)0.70Sr0.30TiO3/ BNBSTO) has been observed. It is confirmed by correlating the structural distortion with the physical properties. The multiple crystal symmetries (Cc, P4mm & Pm-3m) of the solid solution were identified by the Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction pattern. The result is well supported by the Raman spectra analysis. The presence of non-polar phase (cubic) with the polar phases (monoclinic & tetragonal) in solid solution leads to reduce the energy barrier. Also, it enhances the polarization switching through polarization extension mechanism. The energy storage density of the BNBSTO solid solution is found to be maximum (~0.38J/cm3) at 61kV/cm. The dynamics of the electric field induced polarization (P-E hysteresis loop) and current density (J-E variation) curves reveal the presence of the polarization reversal with the domain switching process. Also, the compositional fluctuation at A-site of the BNBSTO solid solution leads to enhance the relaxor behavior, which reflects in the ferroelectric properties and relative dielectric permittivity
Lagen Kumar Pradhan was born in Sambalpur district, Odisha, Indian in 1991. He received M. Sc degree in Physics from Sambalpur University, Odisha in 2013. After that he completed the M. Tech program (2 year) in Nanoscience and Technology from Indian Institute of Technology Patna, Bihar, India in 2015. He is currently working as a Ph. D Research Scholar in the department of Physics at Indian Institute of Technology Patna, India. His research area of interest related to the perovskite based relaxor ferroelectric materials and published several numbers of international journal articles.
The multiferroic properties of the material are found better in two or more crystal phases materials compare to that of single crystal phase materials. Hence, nanocomposites with different weight percentage of Barium Hexaferrite (BaFe12O19/BHF) in Barium Titanate (BaTiO3/BTO) have been prepared. The X-ray diffraction patterns of BHF, BTO and nanocomposites reveal the absence of any secondary phases. The Raman spectra analysis supports to the XRD patterns analysis. The presence of both BHF and BTO crystal phases in the nanocomposites has been confirmed by the high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Interestingly, the nanocrystalline BTO exhibits weak ferromagnetic behavior. Magnetic interaction between BTO and BHF has been observed in the nanocomposite. In addition, the effect of interaction between the BTO and BHF interfaces in BTO-BHF nanocomposite has been assumed to explain the magnetic and ferroelectric properties. It is interesting to note that, even BTO is a very good ferroelectric material, the spring magnetic behavior at the interface of BTO and BHF has been observed in the BHF-BTO composites.
Manoranjan Kar was born in Bhadrak district, Odisha, India in 1975. He received Ph.D. degree in physics from the Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India (2004). Currently, he is working as an Associate Professor in the Department of Physics, IIT Patna. He is expertized in the field of magnetism, electronic transport behavior of the solid as well as ceramic polymer based nanocomposite. He has published several reputed international articles and conference proceedings. He received the DAE and DST Young Scientist Research Award. He has also received the Best physics teacher award from the Indian Association of Physics Teacher.
Green buildings with zero-energy and zero-carbon are nowadays of great importance in mitigation of global warming and climate change due to large-scale energy consumption and severe environmental impact of building industry. In fact, buildings are recognized to be responsible for about 40% of global energy use and almost 50% of world greenhouse gas emission. To promote the green building construction, one should pay primary attention to the development of advanced building materials, which allow buildings to have high thermal insulation performance and less impact on ecosystem and provide comfortable indoor environment. With this view, we have developed multifunctional building materials using several kinds of mineral powders with submicron particle size distribution, patented from WIPO with publication number of WO 2018/124314 A1. The invention is a composite slurry made of mineral, cement powders and vehicle, which can be applied to the external and internal surfaces of concrete wall by spraying. We have performed material characterization analysis such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis and thermogravimetric analysis to identify their crystalline components, chemical compositions and surface morphology, revealing the formation of ceramic coating on the concrete wall in the mechanism of two-step hydrations. Using the self-made experimental set-up and apparatus, we have found that the ceramic coating layer with 1 mm thick can improve the heat insulation performance of concrete wall together with other positive functions such as waterproofing, fireproofing, indoor air purification and antibacterial effect due to existence of special oxides.
Chol-Jun Yu has completed his PhD from RWTH Aachen University by scholarship from the Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz Foundation, Germany. He directs the Chair of Computational Materials Design of Faculty of Materials Science in Kim Il Sung University, DPR Korea. He has published more than 30 papers in peer-reviewed international journals and presented more than 10 invited talks in international conferences and workshops. He won the prize of the “Very Best Scientist of State 2018” and the “February 16 Science and Technology Prize”, DPR Korea. He has a membership of the International Association of Advanced Materials (IAAM).
Potassium bromide sodalite (KBr-SOD) zeolite has been developed to improve the mechanical properties of ceramic dental restorations using a direct in-situ hydrothermal condition followed by sintering process. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of sintering temperature on the microstructures and mechanical properties of partially sintered alumina (A) and zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) discs infiltrated by KBr-SOD. About 120 disc-shaped samples were sintered at various temperatures and prepared for biaxial flexural strength and Vickers microhardness tests. Qualitative analysis of the resulting materials was also performed using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy whereas X-ray diffraction was carried out to confirm the crystallinity and phases of the samples. The results showed that sintering temperatures from 1100°C to 1600°C for both A-SOD and ZTA-SOD samples has resulted in a significant improvement in the density (2.8% and 1.1% respectively), flexural strength (257% and 254% respectively), Vickers hardness (109% and 112% respectively), and weibull modulus (7.5% and 3% respectively). The present study concludes that infiltrated SOD material sintered at 1600°C is suitable for fabrication of all-ceramic dental prostheses with adequate mechanical properties.
Assist Professor Dr. Ghassan Abdul-Hamid Naji has a Bachelor Degree of Dentistry, 1997 from Collage of Dentistry/University of Baghdad, Iraq, certificate in Dental Implantology, 2002 from Iraqi Dental Association, Baghdad, Iraq, Master Degree of Prosthodontic Sciences, 2002 from Collage of Dentistry/University of Baghdad, Iraq and also Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Prosthodontic, 2017 from Collage of Dentistry/University of Malaya, Malaysia. He has published around 13 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of Journal of Baghdad College of Dentistry.