Dr. Diane Bienek
ADA Foundation, USA
Novel Antimicrobial Copolymers for Dental Restoratives
Diane R. Bienek, PhD has 15+ years of experience conducting translational science in the biomedical and dental field. A primary focus has been to establish applied research and product development studies designed to improve patient care by advancing point-of-care technologies for mitigating and treating post-operative complications. At the ADA Foundation, Research Division, she is part of an interdisciplinary team focused on development of novel polymeric dental resins with antibacterial properties. Email: firstname.lastname@example.orgAbstract
Compromised bonding integrity of contemporary dental restoratives leads to gaps at the adhesive/tooth interface, bacterial microleakage, and secondary caries. We seek to develop antimicrobial (AM) composites that physicochemically, mechanically, and biologically outperform conventional Class V restoratives. Aims of this study were to produce/evaluate new monomers with improved adhesiveness to teeth (AMadh1 and AMadh2) and/or coupling with fillers (AMsil1 and AMsil2). Copolymers were formulated by adding 10% wt of the novel monomers to light-curable urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA), polyethylene glycol-extended UDMA, and ethyl 2-(hydroxymethyl) acrylate resin. Flexural strength (FS) and degree of vinyl conversion (DVC) were determined to assess the AM resins’ capacity to withstand load and potential for leaching of unreacted monomers, respectively. The AM properties were measured using Streptococcus mutans (planktonic and biofilms). Direct contact cytotoxicity was tested with mammalian fibroblasts using monomer concentrations that approximated the maximum possible exposure (leachability data from our previous work). DVC, FS, bacterial and cytotoxicity results of each monomer were ranked and statistically analyzed. The optimization analysis indicated that suitability of monomers (in descending order) was AMsil1 > AMadh1 > AMadh2 > AMsil2. Our ongoing research addresses a significant oral health issue associated especially with elderly populations. Successful completion is expected to yield a new class of restoratives with AM functionality, enhanced mechanical properties, and a longer service life.
Prof. Abraham J. Domb
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
Biodegradable Polymers in Medicine
Avi Domb is a Prof. for Medicinal Chemistry and Biomaterials at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He earned Bachelor’s degrees in Chemistry, Pharmaceutics and Law; Diplomas in Polymers and Textiles and in Business Administration, and PhD degree in Chemistry from The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He did his postdoctoral training at Syntex Inc. CA; Harvard Univ. and MIT. He was Senior Scientist at the Biological Institute in Israel and R&D manager at Nova Pharm. Co. USA. Since 1991 he is a faculty member at the Faculty of Medicine, Hebrew University. During 2007-2012 he headed the Division of Forensic Science at the Israel Police and during 2014-2016 he served as president of the Jerusalem College of Engineering (JCE). He is now the Dean of the School of Pharmacy at Hebrew University. His current areas of research include: Biopolymers, Drug delivery systems and Forensic Science.Abstract
Biodegradable polymers have been used for absorbable sutures, orthopedic plates and clips, as drug carries and scaffolds for tissue engineering. These polymers are prepared from natural starting materials such as amino acids, hydroxy acids and fatty acid that are connected by hydrolysable ester, peptide or anhydride bonds. Most biodegradable products are solids, however, some are Injectable pastes that have applications as drug carriers and tissue augmentation. A new class of biodegradable polymers that change their properties or degrade on demand when applying light, temperature, hydrolysis conditions, have been reported. Various absorbable implants have been developed in recent years, including biodegradable balloons for tissue separation, diagnostic markers, stents, and delivery systems. Biodegradable constructs have been designed for use as drug delivery cages, scaffolds for tissue engineering, temporary hard tissue replacements and more. The synthesis and applications of absorbable polymers for medical use will be discussed.
Prof. Norbert Hampp
University of Marburg
Polymers by Design for Intraocular Lenses
Norbert Hampp has completed his first PhD in 1986 in Pharmaceutical Biology and his second PhD in 1992 in Physical Chemistry from Ludwig-Maximilians University in Munich, Germany. He is dean of the chemical department at Marburg University, Germany. He has published more than 220 papers in reputed journal and was granted 19 international patent families.Abstract
In our aging society catarat, the tanning of the natural lens, constantly increases. Today in about 20 million surgeries per year the natural lens is replaced by a polymer substitute. The design of polymers for implantation into the eye is time-consuming and to a high extent a try-and-error approach. We developed theoretical tools to predict all of the essential parameters with good precision, i.e. refractive index, Abbe number, and glass transition temperature. Also tools to measure the microelastic behaviour (E-module) of the polymer materials have been developed. Different approaches to design high refractive index polymers with attractive Abbe numbers will be presented. The biocompatibility of these novel polymers were tested in animal studies. Today intraocular lenses are implanted into the capsular bag using a so-called shooter, a type of syringe through which the folded intraocular lenses are injected into the capsular bag. This is mechanically a stressful procedure. Results from the microelastic behaviour before and after shooter passage will be discussed.
Dr. Frederick H. Silver
Use of Vibrational Optical Coherence Tomography in Non-Destructive Testing of Natural and Synthetic Polymers
Dr. Frederick H. Silver is a Full Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at RWJMS, Rutgers University. He did his Ph.D. in Polymer Science and Engineering at M.I.T. with Dr. Ioannis Yannas, the inventor of the M.I.T. artificial skin, followed by a postdoctoral fellowship in Developmental Medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital with Dr. Robert L. Trelstad, a connective tissue pathologist. He has published over 200 research papers and book chapters and is co-inventor on over 20 patents. He has patents pending on vibrational optical coherence tomography and his company OptoVibronex has world-wide rights to the Rutgers technology.Abstract
Vibrational optical coherence tomography (VOCT) is a new technique that combines the imaging power of optical coherence tomography with measurement of the resonant frequency of a material using audible sound. The resonant frequency is converted directly into an ëlastic modulus based on the material parameters such as the sample mass and dimensions. The technique is non-invasive and non-destructive since it uses near infra-red light and audible sound to measure the resonant frequency of a material. The results obtained using VOCT compare directly to results of tensile incremental stress-strain curves conducted on the same samples.The results of the calibration studies show that there is almost a one-to-one relationship between the tensile and vibrational moduli. In addition, it is also possible to approximate the energy loss during deformation of both natural and synthetic polymers using the half-height band width method. The moduli of individual components can be determined in composite tissues yielding a mechanical spectrum of the elements that compose a material.
The purpose of this talk is to present data on the use of VOCT to characterize (1) biological tissues including skin lesions non-invasively and (2) Silicone, Viton and Neoprene samples. The results indicate that the modulus of natural polymers can be measured in vivo using a calibration curve relating the vibrational modulus to the ratio of the resonant frequency squared divided by the tissue thickness. The moduli of synthetic polymers studied using VOCT were similar to values obtained from tensile testing.
Dr. Hakima Abou-Rachid
Defence Research and Development Canada
Nanomaterials for Energy and InGaN Nanowire Material for Catalysis
Dr. Hakima Abou-Rachid holds a 3rd Cycle Diploma in quantum chemistry from the University of Pau and Pays de l’Adour in France and a Ph.D. in molecular dynamics simulations in the presence of laser fields from Laval University, Canada. She is a Defence Scientist at DRDC, Associated Professor at Laval University and co-supervisor of graduated students. She has more than 25 year experience in the field of computational modeling methods applied to predictions of various chemical and physical properties of materials as well as reactional, sensitive phenomenon of materials. Currently she leads two funded projects. She has published more than 40 papers in peer-reviewed journals and recently published a number of important theory-based papers on polymeric nitrogen. One of the papers was published in Physical Review Letters on “The encapsulation of polynitrogen structures inside carbon nanotubes” won the Best Paper Award at the 7th International Symposium on Special Topics in Chemical Propulsion in Kyoto, Japan (2007) and was also highlighted in the New Scientist, Toronto in 2008. In 2016, Dr. Abou-Rachid with her team won the People’s Choice Award for their poster presentation at the 2016 IM & EM Technology Symposium in Nashville (U.S.A.). This award winning scientific paper focused on the measurements of the dielectric constants of materials by using microwave radiations, for purpose of their identification.Abstract
A new class of nanostructured nitrogen rich hybrid compounds as high energy density materials (HEDM) is proposed. The new nanostructured hybrid materials showed to be stable at ambient conditions and could also serve as a new and superior class of materials for operators and environment. Experimental synthesis was performed for nitrogen doping carbon nanotubes. On the other hand, molecular modeling was conducted in parallel for supporting information. The efficiency of direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion has remained low (~ 2.5%) due to a lack of appropriate photocatalytic materials. To overcome this situation, InGaN nanowires have been developed and are ideal for photochemical water splitting. This innovative technology will offer a free viable renewable alternative energy source of hydrogen. This will also trigger off advances in worthy efforts regarding the safety use of hydrogen based fuel generated by solar unlimited power and water using InGaN nanowire catalyst material.
Dr. Thomas J. Webster
Goodbye Hospitals: Hello Implantable Sensors
Thomas J. Webster’s (H index: 86) degrees are in chemical engineering from the University of Pittsburgh (B.S., 1995) and in biomedical engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (M.S., 1997; Ph.D., 2000). Prof. Webster has graduated/supervised over 149 visiting faculty, clinical fellows, post-doctoral students, and thesis completing B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. students. He is the founding editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Nanomedicine (pioneering the open-access format). Prof. Webster currently directs or co-directs several centers in the area of biomaterials: The Center for Natural and Tropical Biomaterials (Medellin, Colombia), The Center for Pico and Nanomedicine (Wenzhou China), and The International Materials Research Center (Soochow, China). He regularly appears on NBC, CNN, MSNBC, ABC News, National Geographic, Discovery Channel, and BBC News talking about science and medicine. He has received numerous honors and is current a fellow of AANM, AIMBE, BMES, NAI, and FSBE.Abstract
There is an acute shortage of organs due to disease, trauma, congenital defect, and most importantly, age related maladies. While tissue engineering (and nanotechnology) has made great strides towards improving tissue growth, infection control has been largely forgotten. Critically, as a consequence, the Centers for Disease Control have predicted more deaths from antibiotic-resistant bacteria than all cancers combined by 2050. Moreover, there has been a lack of translation to real commercial products. This talk will summarize how nanotechnology with new polymers can be used to increase tissue growth and decrease implant infection without using antibiotics but using sensors (while getting regulatory approval). Our group has shown that nano-self assembled materials, nanofeatures, nano-modifications, nanoparticles, and most importantly, nanosensors can reduce bacterial growth without using antibiotics. This talk will summarize techniques and efforts to create nanosensors for a wide range of medical and tissue engineering applications, particularly those that have received FDA approval and are currently being implanted in humans.
Assoc Prof. Hemachand Tummala
South Dakota State University
Functional Polymers to Overcome Biological and Pharmacokinetic Barriers in Drug Discovery
Hemachand Tummala has had extensive training and expertise (>20 years) on chemistry, formulation development (Pharmaceutics), and immunology. He completed his Ph.D. from the National Institute of Immunology, New-Delhi, India. This unique combination has enabled him to focus on interdisciplinary research to address challenges related to human and animal health. A large emphasis of his current research program is focused on discovering functional biomaterials that interact with the biological system to overcome therapeutic challenges in various diseases including cancer, inflammatory diseases, and infectious diseases (vaccines). This approach had led to the discovery of novel polymer-based TLR agonists and antagonists with applications in vaccines and inflammatory diseases, skin penetration peptides for transdermal delivery and functional nanoformulations to improve the pharmacokinetics of nanomedicine in cancer treatment. His discoveries led to six patent applications and are at various stages of commercialization both in animal and human health sectors. He also serves a grant reviewer for several national and international grant agencies. He also serves as a research consultant for several small biotech and pharma industries.Abstract
The focus of our laboratory is on designing novel biomaterials/delivery systems to overcome therapeutic barriers in various diseases. We impart a biological function to inactive biomaterials (Ex. Polymers or nanoparticles) by various chemical or physical modifications to overcome the therapeutic barriers in various diseases, which could be biological or pharmacokinetic-related. One of the major focus is to discover polymer-based Toll-Like receptor-4 (TLR-4) agonists and antagonists. These bioactive materials are used to deliver active drugs or vaccines for improved therapeutics. We have discovered Inulin acetate as the first plant polymer-based TLR-4 agonist and used it as a bio-active material to design a “Pathogen Mimicking Vaccine Delivery System” to successfully deliver viral (influenza) and cancer vaccines (Melanoma). The technology has been established in multiple animal species to generate both systemic and mucosal immunity. We have also engineered a polymer-based TLR-4 antagonist (Ora-Curcumin) to inhibit inflammation at the colon to treat/prevent inflammatory bowel disease or Colo-rectal cancer. Ora-Curcumin is designed by non-covalent complexation of curcumin with a group of hydrophilic polymers called Eudragits®. Ora-Cucumin is an anti-inflammatory polymer targeted to deliver to the colon lumen without exposing it to the systemic circulation to reduce colon inflammation. Its validity has been tested in colitis mouse models. In another technological innovation, we have improved the circulation time and tumor-targeting ability of nanomedicine by promoting the attachment of nanoparticles with the surface transporters on RBCs using unique chemistry. Patent applications have been filed for all the above technologies and are at various stages of commercialization.
Prof. Michikazu Hara
Tokyo Institute of Technology
Glucose Conversion into Biobased Monomers by Heterogeneous Catalysts
Michikazu Hara obtained his Ph.D. degree in chemistry at Tokyo Institute of Technology in 1992. After graduating, he spent several years as a researcher at Research and Development Center, TOSHIBA Corporation. In 1999–2000, he had worked for the Pennsylvania State University as a postdoc supervised by Professor Thomas E. Mallouk. In 2006, as a Professor, he moved to the Materials and Structures Laboratory in Tokyo Institute of Technology. He was awarded fifth Scientific American 50 (2006) because of sulfonated carbon catalyst.Abstract
5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) obtained from glucose is an attractive intermediate for biomass-derived chemical platform because it can be further converted into monomers, such as 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) and 2,5-bis(aminomethyl)furan (BAF), leading to biobased polyesters, polyamides and polyurethanes. Any chemical process available for efficient glucose conversion into HMF and selective HMF conversion to such monomers would promote the production and use of biobased polymer. Recently, we found that phosphate-immobilized anatase TiO2 acts as a highly selective heterogeneous catalyst for the glucose conversion to HMF even in concentrated aqueous glucose solution. Phosphate species bonded to TiO2 surface prevents side rections, increasing HMF selectivity up to 90% over the catalyst. A simple non-precious-metal catalyst system based on costeffective and ubiquitously available MnO2, NaHCO3, and molecular oxygen is available for converting HMF to FDCA over 90 % yield. Furthermore, it is highly effective for BAF synthesis from HMF to use the combination of Ru-deposited Nb2O5 catalysts and homogeneous Ru systems. The reductive amination of formyl groups in HMF to by Ru-deposited Nb2O5, followed by the dehydrogenation and reductive amination (borrowing hydrogen strategy) of the remaining hydroxymethyl groups in the presence of a Ru homogeneous catalyst give a BAF yield of 93%.
Prof. Meng Deng
Ethicon, Johnson & Johnson
In Vitro Degradation of Absorbable Polymer Filament Materials
Meng Deng received his PhD in applied biomaterials from Clemson University, USA and conducted his postdoctoral study in tissue engineering and polymer biomaterials at Rutgers University, USA. He is currently a research scientist of Ethicon, a Johnson & Johnson company. He has published 22 papers and 6 book chapters, and has been a manuscript reviewer for a dozen of peer-reviewed journals.Abstract
Assist Prof. Urara Hasegawa
Kansas State University
Gasotransmitter Delivery by Polymeric Nanomaterials
Urara Hasegawa completed her doctorate degree in biomedical science from Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan, in 2007. While pursuing her doctorate, she was awarded a research fellowship for young scientists from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) in 2006. From 2007 to 2011, she worked at École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland, as a postdoctoral fellow. In 2011, she moved to Osaka University, Japan, as an assistant professor. She joined Kansas State University as an assistant professor in 2017. She has published more than 45 papers in peer reviewed journals.Abstract
Gaseous signal-transmitter molecules (or Gasotransmitters) such as nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) have recently emerged as therapeutic gases with potential applications in treatment of various pathological conditions like cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Despite their interesting biological functions, the therapeutic potential of these gases has not been well explored due to the difficulty in handling of these gases. One common approach is to use small compounds (gas donors) that release gases under physiologically relevant conditions. However, most of gas donors reported so far show relatively fast gas release, which is not desirable for therapeutic applications that require sustained gas release. Another drawback is that small gas donors and/or their decomposition byproducts often show side effects, which blur the real biological activities of therapeutic gases. To address the issues associated with the small gas donors, we have developed polymeric micelle-based gas donors. These gas donor micelles enable controlled release of gases within cells, inhibit toxic side effects and exhibit much higher biological activities in different cells compared to the corresponding small gas donors. In this talk, the design, synthesis and characterization of the block copolymer micelles as well as their biological evaluation in cell culture and the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay will be presented to highlight the potential applications of the gas donor micelles in wound healing and cancer therapy.
Prof. Grigoriy A. Mun
Al-Faraby Kazakh National University
Macromolecular Design of the Novel Thermo-sensitive Copolymers and their Physicochemical Behaviour
Grigoriy A. Mun graduated from Mordow State University (Saransk, Russia) in 1977 and got his Ph.D. degree in polymer chemistry from Moscow State University in 1984 (Moskow, Russia). In 1988 he joined al-Farabi Kazakh National University (KazNU) as a senior researcher (Almaty, Kazakhstan). In 1991 he was promoted to an associate professor, in 1999 received D.Sc. degree in polymer chemistry and in 2001 he was promoted to a full professor. Since 2005 and up to now he works as the head of the department of chemistry and technology of organic materials, natural compounds and polymers. He has published more than 300 research papers, 15 books, 9 reviews and about 30 patents.Abstract
Stimuli-responsive polymers have attracted significant attention of researchers in the past two decades due to the possibilities of their application in various fields. In particular, water-soluble polymers exhibiting lower critical solution temperature (LCST) are among the most interesting stimuli-sensitive polymers due to numerous potential applications. Sensitivity of hydrophilic polymers to changes in the temperature of environment can be observed when macromolecules have a proper hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance, as demonstrated for a few water-soluble polymers with LCST. In solutions, these polymers undergo phase separation upon heating and their cross-linked analogs (hydrogels) experience sharp contraction or collapse. It should be noted that all such polymers were obtained usually by homopolymerization of amphiphilic monomers such as N-isopropylacrylamide and methylvinylether which have hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments in their structure simultaneously.
We used another approach for synthesis of thermosensitive polymers of linear and cross-linked structure. This approach includes radiation copolymerization of monomers having significant difference in hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance. The possibility for preparation of thermo-sensitive polymers have been demonstrated by -irradiation copolymerization of hydrophilic monomer (vinyl ethers of glycol, N-vinylpyrrolidone, 2-hydroxyethylacrylate, acrylamid) and hydrophobic (vinylalkyl ethers, 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate, metylacrylate, butylacryate, methymethacrylate) monomers.
It was found that obtained copolymer solutions have LCST and copolymer hydrogels of certain composition undergoes sharp collapse at temperature increase. The interaction of copolymers with surfactants was studied. It was shown that swelling behavior of copolymers in surfactants aqueous solutions depend on several factors: copolymer composition, surfactant concentration.
We designed a series of terpolymers responsive to pH and temperature, and metal ions. The multistimuli-responsive properties of newly synthesized polymers are the result of combining hydrophobic, ionogenic, and non-charged hydrophilic moieties within the terpolymer structure. It was found that such obtained polymer network can swell or shrink on increase of temperature depending upon ionic and hydrophobic units in polymer composition. The phenomenon of secondary reswelling upon increase of temperature after contraction of the gel sample was observed. The theoretical approach gave an explanation of the observed phenomena, which lies in existence of inhomogeneous structure of the hydrogels having hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains. The polymer hydrogels with ability to oscillated volume change in scope at monotone increase on temperature have been synthesized and studied.
Dr. R Velmurugan
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Application of GFRP tubes with hollow glass particles as collapsible energy absorption structures
R Velmurugan, Ph.D., Professor (HAG), Head of Composite Technology Centre and Impact Mechanics Lab, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India. His areas of interest are composite structures, impact mechanics, nanomaterials, additive manufacturing and high-strain rate studies. He has over 300 research articles and 2 patents. His research group has completed 15 sponsored research projects and 50 consultancy projects. He has guided more than 75 students for PhD/MS/MTech degrees. Daniel Paul is a research scholar at Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India. His area of research is hollow particle-filled fibre composites and their energy absorption characteristics.Abstract
Studies on impact and blast are gaining importance in recent times to design structures that protect humans or important payloads from impact, blast, and accidents. Various techniques and materials have been used to achieve this. Metals were primarily used but they resulted in bulkier structures. Composite tubes subject to axial crushing are found to be good energy absorbers. To further improve the energy absorption parameters, hollow glass particles (known as glass microballoons or GMB) have been added to these tubes. These polymer-GMB composites, commonly known as syntactic foams, are found to improve the crushing properties of polymers while reducing the weight. In this study, different proportions of GMB are added to glass fibre-reinforced epoxy tubes to understand its effect on the crushing properties such as energy absorption, mean crush load, peak crush load and crush force efficiency. The tests are carried out in quasi-static conditions to analyse the various crushing mechanisms involved. In order to prevent catastrophic failure, one end of the tube is chamfered which induces petal formation. This causes the tubes to fail progressively and thus improves the energy absorption. The results of mechanical tests of GFRP-GMB plates are incorporated in an analytical model to estimate the energy absorption properties and the various mechanisms involved. These tubes find application in outer layers of vehicles to protect it against crash and impact and also as a sacrificial layer in walls of immobile structures, such as buildings, to protect it from blasts.
Dr. Peyman Ezzati
Kurdistan Barez Tire Company
Nano Porous Scaffold Preparation of PLLA/PCL/PEO/Nacl Quaternary Polymer Blend in Tissue Engineering
My name is Peyman Ezzati, I have Ph.D., M.Sc. and B.Sc. in Polymer Engineering from Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic) and Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute (IPPI).Currently I am working as a Development and Industrialization (D&I) manager of a big and new tire company in Iran named Kurdistan Barez Tire Company. Nowadays our main mission in D&I office is technology transferring (TT managment).I have about ten years’ experience in Research & Development in polymer science and technology especially in the field of rubber and plastic. Before I was R&D manager of PARFOSA company which produce Rubber (NR, EMPDM, SBR, NBR, Viton, Silicon) part. In this regard, in addition to studying in the field of elastomer and plastic science, polymer engineering and technology I study as well as in the field of quality assurance (QA), production and human resources (HR).Abstract
In this study, the ternary blends containing micro porosity based on poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA), poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) were prepared using an internal mixer and via a polymer leaching technique. To introduce macro porosity were formed by PEO polymer leaching. Sample porosity were evaluated by calculating the ratio of porous scaffold density (ρ*) to the non-porous material density (ρs). Compressive modulus decreased with an increase in PEO polymer concentration due to the increase in porosity and thinning of pore wall that caused rupture at this weaker spots.
Prof. Thieo E. Hogen-Esch
University of Southern California
The Nature of Fluorophilic Association in Fluorocarbon Functionalized Polymers.
Will be updated soon...Abstract
Highly efficient association of polymers containing extremely small fractions of perfluorocarbon pendent- or end groups has long been demonstrated to occur in aqueous media through viscometry, light scattering, DSC, TEM, AFM and other methods. For instance, for the case of polyacrylamides containing comonomers with pendent C8F17 groups with mole fractions of as low as 10-4, large,100-1000 fold viscosity increases were observed compared with the isobaric homopolymers. The association of these copolymers in non-aqueous media including dioxane have also been observed indicating that the association of RF groups is not merely hydrophobic but “fluorophilic”. It has also been shown by 1H-NMR that C6F13 end capped polyethylene oxide leads to the concentration dependent formation of dimers. Although PS and PBMA are incompatible, narrow MW distribution C4F9, C7F15, C10F21 and C13F27 end-functionalized PS and PBMA synthesized by ATRP using RF-tagged initiators allow the formation of highly homogeneous blends as shown by DSC, AFM, TEM and optical transmittance (OT). The RF-PS/RF-PBMA blends having molecular weights of 20,000 and C7F15 or larger end groups, were optically transparent indicating formation of micellar RF rich structures. TEM images of some of the corresponding blends show assembly of elongated domains with sizes in the micro or nanometer scales depending on MW and RF size. More recent data simple C7F15, C10F21 and C13F27 end functionalized narrow distribution PS showed glass transition temperature that decrease as much as 15 0C compared to the isobaric PS. These changes increase with RF-lengths and -contents with the RF lengths having the larger effects. This suggest the RF association into highly dynamic RF clusters. This is also demonstrated to occur in polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) through very rapid helix reversals involving multiple chains. Such motions are likely to be enabled upon inter-molecular association of RF groups so that fluorophilic association in these model polymers are likely to be entropy driven. This insight is supported by a temperature dependent rheology of PS-C13F27 that show increases in shear storage (10-100 fold) and loss moduli (4-fold) relative to isobaric PS as temperatures increase.
Prof. Sahar I. Mostafa
New Chemically Modified Chitosan and Cellulose; Their Applications in Bone Repair Stimulation in Rat Mandible and Up take of Chromium(VI) Ions from aqueous Media
Prof. Sahar I. Mostafa Inorganic Chemistry professor Mansoura University, Egypt; Visiting Prof. McGill, Canada; Ioannina Univ, Greece. She was awarded B Sc (Excellent honor) and M Sc (Mansoura Univ) and Ph D (Imperial College, UK) and Academic Visitor Imperial College, IKY Fellow, JICA fellow. She has written chapters, invited for 35 lectures worldwide, 80 publications, member in editorial boards in 10 scientific journals, and advisor (40 M Sc, Ph D theses). She developed several aspects of O,O; N,O and N,S donors complexes with low cytotoxicity with research interest is on transition metal complexes biologically active (anticancer, antiosteoporosis), catalysis and environmental for removal of heavy metal ions by adsorption onto Modified Solid Supports (MSS). Her academic efforts have been recognized by Mansoura Univ PLATES (2013, 2017, 2018, 2019; best Teaching-1992), JICA (2000), Imperial College (1993, 2008), Who’s is Who’s in the world (2008), Batna University, Algeria (2014, 2019), Al-Azhar Univ (2007, 2009, 2011), Africa Pharmacology (South Africa 2016).Abstract
Oral bone loss and subsequent tooth loss are substantial worldwide health problems. The use of artificial bone grafts has been developed over recent years and is expected to increase for some indications in trauma and reconstructive surgery. Chitosan, the most abundant natural polymer after cellulose, possesses antimicrobial activity and could contribute to healing. Overall results demonstrated the usefulness of chitosan as drug releasing scaffolds for currently used biomaterials
to enhance bone formation efficacy. These results may expand the feasibility of combinative strategy of bone formation in reconstructive therapy in the field of periodontics, orthopedics, and plastic surgery. Chitosan has been reported to be an osteoinductive material when cultured with bone cells or implanted in bone tissue.
In addition, providing clean water to meet human needs is one of the great challenges of the 21st century. Water quality is adding additional stress with 4.5 million tons of untreated or partially treated industrial pollutants estimated to enter the water supply annually. There has been an increasing focus on the application of sustainable biomaterials as an alternative to chemical-based wastewater treatment. Adsorption is considered to be a potential cost-effective method for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous media and by incorporating modified solid supports (MSS), the adsorption of Cr(VI) ions (after reduction to Cr(III) using Vitamin C) was greatly enhanced when compared to adsorption with their free forms.
Chemically modified chitosan (complexation with silver(I) ions in presence of 4-amino-6-hydroxy-2-mercaptopyrimidine) and cellulose (imprinting of telluric acid in absence and presence of marine green algae) have been prepared and their structures were characterized by various spectroscopic (FT-IR, Raman, UV-visible reflectance, solid-state 13C-NMR and XRD), morphological (SEM, EDX), elemental analysis and TGA measurements.
Chitosan-Ag(I)- 4-amino-6-hydroxy-2-mercaptopyrimidine was applied as biomedical devices in improving tissue regeneration efficacy. In addition, the results can expand the feasibility of combinative strategy of controlled drug release concept and engineering tissue formation in reconstructive therapy in the field of periodontics, orthopedics, and plastic surgery.
Cellulose-telluric acid and Cellulose-telluric acid-marine green algae composites were applied as sorbents for the removal of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous media. The optimum experimental parameters, including the initial pH, amount of sorbent, contact time, temperature and metal ions concentration, have been discussed. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms were also reported. The desorption processes illustrate the regeneration ability of the sorbents without any significant loss of its initial properties. Compared to commercially expensive sorbents, the non-toxic, biodegradable cellulose materials could prove to be an attractive, alternative material for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater. Spectroscopic, morphological, TGA and magnetic measurements were also applied to investigate the nature of the adsorption of Cr(VI) ions onto cellulose sorbents.
References:  Elsayed S. A., Saad E. M., Butler I. S., Mostafa S. I. (2018) J. Envir. Chem. Eng., 6, 3451-3468  Ibrahim F. M., El-Hawary Y. M., Butler I. S., Mostafa S. I. (2014), Int. J. Polym. Mat. Pol. Biomat., 63, 846-858.  Anan N. A, Hassan S. M., Saad E. M., Butler I. S., Mostafa S. I. (2011) Carboh. Res., 346, 775-760.  Butler I. S., El-Sherbeny H. M., Kenawy I., Mostafa S. I. (2016), Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 88, 392-402.
Prof. Jalil Kareem Ahmed
University of Babylon, Iraq
Prof. Jaleel Kareem Ahmed is a Professor of physical chemistry in college of Materials Engineering , Babylon University , Iraq . He was the Dean of the Institute of Foundry and Hammering (2002 – 2013 ) . Dr. Ahmed has his expertise in Iron and steel Industry . He completed his ph.D from Baghdad University and Martin Luther / Germany . I used red beet juice as scavenger for poisonous heavy metal ions and anticancer and detoxification of urea and uric acid from blood via urine system thus it helps kidney work . I have registered 8 patents with 40 published papers and 3 books . He is a reviewer in Jon Wily and Sons since 2016 USA and Editorial board Member of Science publishing Group 2015 USA , and a member in Encyclopedia of Chemistry Scientists 2012 . In 2013 I was awarded Scientists Medal from Iraqi Government for my research " Using Chlorophyll as Gamma ray absorbent to protect Iraqi children from cancer " . In 2014 I became a member in Wh'o is Wh'o network . 2018 Marquis Wh'o is Wh'o has selected me for their official 2018 Albert Nelson Marquis Lifetime Achievement Award in America . Since 2016 I took a part with quality Star (QS) Global Academic Survey ( QS World University Rankings USA ) . In 2018 I awarded honor certificate from International Human Rights for my researches activity .Abstract
In this research a therapeutical film from biopolymer and iodine elemental is prepared with different weight percent iodine (24.6). In the average thickness was 0.1mm . Several test are carried out on the film which is suitable for treatment and its effectiveness in healing wounds , burns and infected areas by exposing the infected mice and human and the results are compared with the using medical treatment Celavix (present ointment). The antibacterial activity is examined by exposing film to Escherichia Coli (Gram negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive ) microorganism, the results show that the antibacterial ability increases with iodine percent. The healing power increases also as iodine percent increases and complete healing obtained within eight days. Differential Scanning Calorimeter( DSC )shows the glass transition temperatures ( Tg )of the film are shown in the following table: material Tg / oC Ea at Tg / kJ mol-1 Energy given by iodine kJ mol-1 Pure biopolymer 95.57 203.00 0 + 2% iodine 60.90 179.40 23.59 + 4 % iodine 55.86 153.02 27.02 + 6% iodine 50.00 149.08 31.00 The table shows that addition of iodine to the used biopolymer resulted in iodine supply energy to the polymer and this energy is consumed in destroying secondary bonds (engineering bonds) which is shifted the Tg down as a function of iodine concentration. Thus iodine destroys partly the hydrogen bond of the polymer and lowering the Tg and the film becomes more flexible. The role of iodine is sublimation at room temperature( transformed from solid iodine to vapor directly). The vapor consists of pure (100%) iodine nano molecules and while the biopolymer film absorbs water and other solutions from the infected area until dryness gives a chance to iodine to contact the dry area directly and reached any point covered by the film notably wounds, it attacks the deepest point and the healing starts from bottom to the top opposite to the healing by ointment thus there is no chance for deep infection remain. In addition, the film is not a pollutant like ointment which is a dust collector. The results shows complete healing takes eight days shorter than in case of ointment as the following figure shows. Reference : Iraqi patent 5500.
Dr. Hadi Al-Lami
University of Basrah, Iraq
Hadi Al-Lamihas completed his PhD from School of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, England. He is working as Professor of Polymer Chemistry at University of Basrah-Iraq. He is appointed as head of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Safety and Security Committeeat College of Science/University of Basrah. He has published about 100 papers in reputed journals, and three books, besides ten Iraqi patents, and has been serving as an editorial board member of three reputed Journals.Abstract
In the field of nanomedicine and nanotechnology methods focus on formulating therapeutic biocompatible agents such as nanoparticles, nanocapsules, micellar systems, and conjugates. Nanoparticles are solid and spherical structures owing to their small size (1–100 nm) and large surface area-to-volume ratios, NPs have properties that can be exploited for a wide range of purposes. To reach the large-size nucleic acid molecule, the cytoplasm, or even the nucleus, a suitable carrier system is required to deliver genes to cells which enhance cell internalization and protect the DNA molecule from nuclease enzymatic degradation. Gene therapy has been applied in many different diseases such as cancer, AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases, and is based on the concept that human disease may be treated by the transfer of genetic materials into specific cells of a patient to supply defective genes responsible for disease development. To transfer the genes to the specific site, genes must escape the processes that affect the disposition of macromolecules. In cancer research, collections of tumor derived cell lines are often used as models because they carry hundreds to thousands of aberrations that arose in the tumor from which they were derived. Cell lines serve as models to study cancer biology, and connecting genomic alterations to drug response can aid in understanding cancer patient response to therapy. An important paradigm shift occurred in late 1980s. The utility of cell lines acquired from tumors allows the investigation of tumor cells in a simplified and controlled environment.
Dr. Abdeen Mustafa Omer
Energy Research Institute (ERI), Nottingham, United Kingdom
Abdeen Mustafa Omer (BSc, MSc, PhD) is an Associate Researcher at Energy Research Institute (ERI). He obtained both his PhD degree in the Built Environment and Master of Philosophy degree in Renewable Energy Technologies from the University of Nottingham. He is qualified Mechanical Engineer with a proven track record within the water industry and renewable energy technologies. He has been graduated from University of El Menoufia, Egypt, BSc in Mechanical Engineering. His previous experience involved being a member of the research team at the National Council for Research/Energy Research Institute in Sudan and working director of research and development for National Water Equipment Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Sudan. He has been listed in the book WHO'S WHO in the World 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2010. He has published over 300 papers in peer-reviewed journals, 200 review articles, 7 books and 150 chapters in books.Abstract
Prof. Frank Boury
CRCINA, INSERM, University of Nantes, University of Angers
Pr Frank Boury, PharmD, obtained his PhD degree at the University of Paris XI in 1995 awarded by two fellowships. From 2008, he is also the vice-director of the doctoral school Biology-Health. From 2011 he is the coordinator of the Erasmus Mundus Joint Doctorate European Doctorate “NanoFar”. He is author of around 100 scientific publications and of more than 100 papers presented at international conferences. He developed a platform aiming developing nano-micromedicine for the controlled release of protein and fragile molecules. During 2013-2017, Frank Boury was also Chair at European Technology Platform of Nanomedicine.Abstract
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal form of brain cancer. The diffusive nature of GBM tumours makes them impossible to be removed completely by surgery. As a result, the residual GBM cells contribute to ≥90% rate of tumour recurrence. An implant that gradually releases chemoattractant molecules called stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), which binds selectively to the CXCR4 receptors of GBM cells, is useful for inducing chemotaxis and trapping of the residual GBM cells that will subsequently enable their selective killing and reduce recurrence rate. In this work, SDF-1α was initially encapsulated into biodegradable poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-based particles. The SDF-1α-loaded nanoparticles were then embedded within a chitosan scaffold by electrospinning to obtain nano-structured implants that mimic the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) structure to encourage GBM cell infiltration. Latest results showed that SDF-1α molecules can be loaded into spherical PLGA-based nanoparticles with high encapsulation efficiency (76%). The SDF-1α-loaded nanoparticles were also conveniently co-electrospun with chitosan to produce nanoparticle-nanofibre composite scaffolds. Preliminary release study revealed that the composite scaffolds permitted a gradual release of SDF-1α up to day 35, in contrast to the short-term burst release achieved with nanoparticles alone. The sustained SDF-1α release will be useful for establishing local SDF-1α concentration gradient, which is critical for inducing chemotaxis of GBM cells and their trapping. Focus will shift towards evaluating the in vitro efficacy of the implants in trapping CXCR4-expressing GBM cells and developing a GBM tumour resection cavity model for in vivo analysis.
Mr. Barak Shapira
Bar Ilan University
Barak Shapira is a PhD student under the supervision of prof. Doron Aurbach in Bar Ilan University, Israel. Barak’s research topics are electrochemical and membranes driven processes desalination. Barak published 6 paper during his studies.Abstract
Capacitive mixing is a newly emerging technique for the production of renewable energy from differences in salinity. The method is based on the controlled mixing of two streams with different salt concentrations, which are alternatingly brought into contact with pre-charged porous electrodes, taking advantage of the fact that modification of the electrical double layer of the electrodes results in changes in the solution salinity. In most research, the renewable energy resources are seawater and river water. Here, we demonstrate that energy extraction by capacitive mixing can take place with acidic wastewater and seawater as energy resources. This concept is proved by means of the fabrication of a proton-selective carbon cathode (the negatively polarized electrode), achieved by carbonation of cellulose filter paper, followed by mild activation in concentrated nitric acid. Considerable energy extraction was demonstrated even when the concentration of the saline solution was tenfold that of the acidic solution.
Assoc. Prof. Anna Szymczyk
West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin
Anna Szymczyk completed her PhD in Chemical Technology at the Faculty of Chemical Technology and Engineering at Szczecin University of Technology. In 2003-2005 she was a Postdoctoral Researcher at the Department of Organic Chemistry at the University of Barcelona. She receive habilitation degree in Materials Engineering from Warsaw University of Technology. At present she is an associate professor of Materials Science and Engineering at Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Poland. Her main research interests include multiphase polymer systems, thermoplastic elastomers, biobased polymers and polymer nanocomposites.Abstract
During recent years there has been growing interest in synthesis of new polymers based on 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA), especially in alipharomatic polyesters, which can be obtained from monomers derived straight from renewable resources like furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Also recent developments in the catalytic routes toward high- purity FDCA allowed the preparation of larger amounts of this compound, and led to an increase of expectations to replace, partially or totally, those of petrochemical origin used in the production of aromatic polyesters via polycondensation.
In these work the new partially and fully bio-based multiblock copolymers consisting of rigid poly(trimethylene furanoate) (PTF) bocks and flexible polyether blocks such as poly(tetramethylene oxide) (PTMO) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) or dimerized fatty acid diol (FADD) will be presented. Melt polycondensation was uesd as the preparation technique for these new multiblock copolymers since aromatic polyesters and copolyesters are commonly prepared by this method in the industry. The relationship between composition and properties of these new biobased multiblock copolyesters was studied in detail. It will be presented that depending on the rigid PTF/flexible PTMO (PEO or FADD) blocks ratio, the multiblock copolymers properties range from those of the rubbery polymers to those of engineering thermoplastics.
Ms. Inabat Moldakhan
Almaty University of Power Engineering and Telecommunications
Ibragim Suleimenov. Doctor of Chemical Sciences Professor in the Department of Infocommunication technologies of Almaty University of Power Engineering & Telecommunications. He graduated from the faculty of Physics, Department of "Optics" St. Petersburg University, 1986. Author of over 450 articles. Research interests: Physical Chemistry of Stimuli-Responsive Polymers, Interpolymer reactions and complexes, Polymer Nanocomposite materials, Application Hydrophilic Polymers in Nanoelectronic, Applications of Neural Network Theory, Evolution of Complicated Systems, Theoretical Optics, Gas Discharge Plasma, Self-organization Processes, Chaos Dynamics, Mathematical Macroeconomics.Abstract
The challenge of molecular informatics is the creation of Nano-sized (supramolecular) systems able to execute a specified sequence of operations when microscopic parameters of the system change. In particular, a field of application is drug delivery systems. For this purpose, structures, which allow recording of an executable program by changing thermodynamic variables, should be realized. It means that a code sequence, which records information into the given systems, represents a certain sequence of thermodynamic variables. From the point of view of radio engineering, it means that information should be recorded into an analogue of a neural network (or another circuit) as long as the same signals supplied to all inputs of elements of the system. It was shown that the circuit, which implements such principle of recording information, exists. Its simplest variety is an analogue of a trigger (an elementary memory cell of a system able to be in two sustained states) which elements possess three independent inputs, one of them is used to create backward linkages in the system, and control signals are given to two of others. This type of system implements a kind of 3D hysteresis: there are ranges of control parameters when several different states of the system can be implemented when values of the parameters are the same. Implementation of the certain state depends on not only the current value of control variables but also their previous values. In other words, a characteristic of changes of states of a proposed analogue of the trigger is the trajectory of control parameters on the two-dimensional map, which is corresponding to the nature of their changes. Varying trajectories of this type it is possible to provide recording information into the system even when the system is Nano-sized and control impacts are macroscopic. An analogue of the proposed type of trigger may be implemented both based on interpolymer complexes experienced phase transitions with changes of thermodynamic quantities and stimulus-sensitive cross-linked polymer grids.
Dr. Guillermina Burillo
National Autonomous University of Mexico
Guillermina Burillo has completed his PhD from Universidad Pierre et Marie Curie, France and and postdoctoral studies from University of arizone, USA. She is Senior Research of Nuclear Science Institute. She was head of Radiation Chemistry Department at ICN UNAM and obtained the National Chemistry award in 2015.She has published more than 150 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial reviewer for many international journals.Abstract
Cell Attachment on surfaces are critical for biomedical and biotechnological applications like the development of biomaterials for tissue engineering. Primary amine grafting polymers are useful surfaces for cell colonization, they are usually prepared by plasma polymerization of alkyl amine monomers, with several desadvantages; there is a considerable fragmentation of the original compound incorporated to the system, and degradation of amines which decays with storage in air after one week. Radiation modification seems to be a solution, with the advantages of more homogeneous structures, without fragmentation of polymers and monomers of the system and without decay of prymary amines group in more than 90 days. In this research different methods of polymers modification (PP, PE, PTFE and PET), by gamma radiation was obtained.1) radiation grafting with acryloyl chloride and subsequent chemical reaction with dialylamines. 2) radiation grafting with allylamine in the presence or not of redox agents and 3) radiation grafting of acrylamides and reduction of the amide groups to amines ones. Different synthesized systems were characterized by XPS, DSC, TGA, contact angle, SEM-EDS, AFM and FTIR. Cellular adhesion in different systems was studied to find the system with better properties of adhesion. Aknowledgments. The authors thanks to Alejandra Ortega,M. Cruz, L.M. Escamilla for technical support and DGAPA UNAM IN200116 and LaNSBioDyT, UNAM, for financial support.
Dr. Moira Ambrosi
University of Florence
Dr. Moira Ambrosi has completed her Ph.D. from the University of Durham (UK) performing a research on the synthesis of glycopolymers and their application as targeted drug delivery devices. Dr. Ambrosi is a reader at the Chemistry Department of the University of Florence and instructor of General Chemistry at the University of New Haven (Prato). She has published about 40 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as a reviewer for peer-reviewed scientific journals and as an editorial board member of “Substantia. An International Journal of the History of Chemistry”.Abstract
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is one of the most promising biopolymers widely used to produce biomedical devices. However, its highly hydrophobic nature limits its range of application. In the present work, binary blends were prepared by mixing PHB with pluronics F68 and F127, PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers with different molar mass and HLB. The blends’ non-isothermal crystallization kinetics was investigated by both differential scanning calorimetry and rheology. PHB and pluronics were found to be miscible in the melt with pluronics acting as diluents. PHB crystallized producing polydisperse dendritic and ringed spherulites with partial segregation of the amorphous component outside the lamellae. Polarized optical microscopy suggested that blending increased the crystallinity and promoted crystal ordering. As evidenced by small-angle X-ray scattering measurements, the lamellar parameters did not change upon blending while the size of extralamellar amorphous domains increased through the addition of pluronic indicating at least a partial pluronic segregation outside the lamellar stacks. Based on the KP theory, the final blend morphology is qualitatively established by the interplay between the growth rate of PHB and the diffusive displacement rate of pluronic. The more diffusive F68 led to highly homogeneous samples mostly composed of double ring-banded spherulites with constant twist period, while, due to its lower diffusion coefficient, F127 was partly trapped into the developing spherulite envelope leading to less resolved structures. Our results contribute to disclose the crystallization process for crystalline/crystalline polymer systems in non-isothermal real operating conditions stressing the correlation between the blend final structure and properties.
Dr. Jeroen Hugenholtz
Wageningen Food & Biobased Research
Jeroen Hugenholtz has completed his PhD from the University of Groningen, The Netherlands and postdoctoral studies from University of Georgia, USA. He is currently leader of a fermentation expertise group at Wageningen Research and (part-time) holder of a professor chair at the University of Amsterdam in Industrial Molecular Microbiology. He has published more than 200 papers in international scientific journals and is author of more than 20 patents in the area of (food) fermentation and metabolic engineering.Abstract
UrBioFin is the acronym of a collaborative project sponsored by The European Commission on valorization of municipal solid waste (MSW). In this project, several European research institutes and industrial partners join forces to up-grade an existing, Spanish, bio-ethanol plant towards the production of higher-value chemicals such as bioethylene, medium-chain fatty acids and various bioplastics (poly hydroxy alkanoates/PHA). The task of Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (WFBR) within this consortium is to develop, optimalize and scale-up a two-step process to produce medium-chainlength PHA’s from short chain fatty acids produced during anaerobic digestion of the organic part of the MSW. In the first step, the short chain fatty acids are converted by oleogenic yeasts such as Cryptococcus curvatus into medium- and long-chain fatty acids, which are subsequently fed to the PHA-producing bacterium, Pseudomonas putida. This leads to production of PHA’s containing much longer fatty acids residues with more flexible, superior, material properties in comparison to convential PHB (polyhydroxybutyric acid) and PHV (polyhydroxyvaleric acid). with this approach, PHA production is not only expected to be cost-effective, but will also lead to more extensive use of PHA for instance as biodegradeable packaging material or for agricultural use as biodegradeable foil.
Dr. Kehinde AWOKOYA
Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria
Molecularly Imprinted polymers for the Selective Sequestering and Sensing of p-chlorophenol, catechol and hydroquinone
Dr Kehinde N. Awokoya completed his PhD from Rhodes University, South Africa in the year 2014. He is currently a researcher and Lecturer at Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife Nigeria. He has published more than 17 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member and reviewers of repute to many Journal outfits.Abstract
Talabi Segun Isaac
Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil
Catalytic graphitization of lignin-phenol-formaldehyde resin for refractory applications
Talabi S. I. is a lecturer in the Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Department, University of Ilorin, Nigeria. He is presently undertaking a PhD degree programme at the Federal University of São Carlos, Materials Engineering Department, Brazil under the supervision of Prof. A. A. Lucas. He has published more than 25 papers in reputable journals and two articles on the subject of catalytic graphitization of phenolic resins.Abstract
Carbon-containing refractories’ (CCRs) thermomechanical properties depend on the presence of carbonaceous phase with a structure similar to those of graphite. Thermosetting resins, which are used as binder for CCRs production, produce amorphous carbon with inferior features compared to graphite. In addition, these binder materials are expensive. Based on this, ferrocene and boron compounds were used to induce graphite generation during the pyrolysis of a laboratory-synthesized lignin-phenol-formaldehyde (LPF) resin to provide an additional source of crystalline carbons in CCRs and reduce cost. The resin carbonization was carried out via a designed heating procedure that can be adopted for the production of such refractory bricks. X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique was selected to measure the attained graphitization level. The results show that these additives are suitable for graphitizing LPF resin carbon, howbeit, to a different degree of graphitization.
Mohammad Raza. Miah
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
Title of the Presentation – Research on Fast Detection Sensor Based on Polymer Materials
Mr. Mohammad Raza Miah has completed his M.Sc. in Textile Engineering at the age of 29 years from Wuhan Textile University, CHINA and PhD studies from University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS), Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering (CNITECH), Solid State Functional Materials Laboratory, CHINA. He has published more than 10 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of repute. His research interest lies in the area of polymer synthesis, Structure-property analysis, Coating & protective clothing. His research focuses on the development of sensor based polymers, and applications, polymer materials using different polymerization technique, and application on substances.Abstract
Prof. Alexander Bilibin
Saint‐Petersburg State University, Russian Federation
Polyelectrolyte complexes with oligovalent ionic cross-linkers bearing functional compounds (bioactive, luminescent, drugs) in their structure
Alexander Bilibin has graduated from Leningrad State University (nowadays – Saint Petersburg State University - SPbU) in 1965 and continued his career in the Institute of Macromolecular Compounds leading the laboratory of Liquid Crystalline Polymers. In 1990 he headed Macromolecular Section of the Chemistry Institur of SPbU as fool professor. He has published more than 200 papers in reputed journals. At present he deals with polyelectrolyte biopolymers.Abstract
Dr. Rolando Pedicini
CNR – Institute for Advanced Energy and Technologies “Nicola Giordano” of Messina, Italy.
Hydrogen Storage by Eco-Sustainable Materials
Rolando Pedicini was graduated in Chemistry on March 2000 at the Messina University; from 2001 until now he has been collaborates with the National Council of Research, Institute for Advanced Energy Technologies “Nicola Giordano” (CNR-ITAE) of Messina within the project “Polymeric Electrolyte Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Storage” and since 2009 has reached a researcher permanent position. His activity has been focused on the development of components for Fuel Cells, synthesis of innovative materials for hydrogen storage and chemical-physical characterisations. He has published 103 papers, 32 of them on international journals, 71 on abstracts books of international conference, 2 book’s chapter.Abstract
Prof. Dr. Zizi I. Abdeen
Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI) , Egypt
Enhancing the effectiveness of Mg-Co Nano-ferrites for Capture of Petroleum from Solution by mixing them with deacetylated chitin
Professor Zizi Abdeen has completed her PhD from Ain Shams University, (Egypt), and postdoctoral studies from Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute. She is a researcher Professor in Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute. She has published more than 33 papers in reputed journals and and reviewer of over 30 International journals and a member of the Advisory Editorial Board of Polymers and Biomaterials in different International journals. She was sharing as technical and organizer committee in more than ten international conferences.Abstract
Dr. Rahul Hajare
Fellow Indian Council of Medical Research New Delhi, India
Water Quality of Shallow Groundwater in Sums of Reputed Pune University Pharmaceutical Institutional Area
Dr. Rahul Hajare is bright student of Renowned Immunologist Honorable Respected Dr. Ramesh S Paranjape’’ Retired Director National AIDS Research Institute Pune. He is fellow Indian Council of Medical Research. Dr. Hajare PhD Scholar Pharmacy (Medicinal Chemistry) at Vinayaka Mission's Research Foundation TamilNadu. Dr. Hajare has celebrated excellence in service award '' 2016 '' of Association of Pharmaceutical Teachers of India. He is Aaffiliated Member of “BioMedPress (BMP) Vietnam National University - Ho Chi Minh CityAbstract
Dr. Said Aqdim
Hassan II University Casablanca
Chemical Durability, Structural study and bioactivity of the P2O5-CaO-Na2O-TiO2 glasses
AQDIM completed his PhD from Faculty of Science Ain Chock Casablanca, Morocco and his postdoctoral studies from Mohammed V University Rabat, Morocco. He is ceramic and condensed matter laboratory team leader. He has published more than 10 articles in reputable journals.Abstract
The preparation of phosphate glasses P2O5-CaO-Na2O-TiO2 was carried out by direct melting. The chemical durability of the glass series is improved by increasing the TiO2 content to the detriment of Na2O content, followed by a decrease when the TiO2 content exceeds 2 mol%. The addition of TiO2 in the vitreous network leads to an increase in the glass transition temperature (Tg). The measurement of the density shows that the ionic radius of the oxygen atom remains almost constant for all the samples. In addition, the X-ray diffraction analysis of the glasses annealed at 650 °C. for 48 h, indicates the appearance of a mixture of metaphosphate and pyrophosphate phases, these last ones, becoming majority when the TiO2 content increases. Analysis by infrared spectroscopy confirms the results obtained by XRD. However, when the TiO2 content exceeds 2 mol%, the analysis by infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, together, indicate the appearance of the new major orthophosphate phases compared to the metaphosphate and pyrophosphate phases. While the SEM micrographs indicates the coexistence of two phases, one crystalline and the other vitreous. The results of the bioactivity of samples, after immersion in the simulated body fluid at 37°C, show the formation of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate layers .
Dr. Ali akbar Merati
Amirkabir University of Technology
Electrospinning of polydiacetylene supramolecules/ polyvinylidene fluoride
Dr. Ali Akbar Merati is an associate Professor at Textile Engineering Department of Amirkabir University of Technology in Iran. He received his B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees from the Textile Engineering Department of Amirkabir University of Technology and Phd from the department of Mechanical Engineering of Gifu University in Japan. After 2 years of postdoctoral research, he joined the Department of Material Science and Technology of Gifu University. From 2007, he is an academic member of Amirkabir University of Technology. His specialty is nanofibrous materials and smart textiles.Abstract
Polydiacetylenes (PDA) are stimuli-sensitive conjugated polymer with high sensitivity that could be applied to varios detections. They change their color upon the stimulation of external environment such as PH, tempreture, mechanical and electrical stress and solvents. The electroactive properties of β phase Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), presents outstanding electrical characteristics that are important in applications such as sensors and smart scaffolds. This article discusses the basic knowledge and character methods for fabrication of PVDF/PDA composite nanofibers via the electrospinning method. In this study, we fabricated PDA supramolecules in electrospun PVDF fibers and developed new PVDF/PDA composite nanofibers. During the electrospinning process, the monomers of diacetylene are self-assembled. Photopolymerization of the white electrospun mat was carried out with a handheld laboratory 254 nm UV lamp for 2 min (1 min each side) at 25 ºC resulting in the formation of PDA supermolecules in electrospun mat with a deep blue color.
The morphology of PVDF/PDA nanofibers were considered to fabricate an uniform and beadless PVDF/PDA nanofibers. The tempreture sensitivity of the PVDF/PDA nanofibers were studied and their colorimetric transitional were considered. The piezoelectric response of the PVDF/PDA nanofibers in the red and blue phases was also measured. The blue-to-red color transition of PVDF/PDA composite nanofibers accompanied by the variation of piezoelectric response could open new avenues for many sensor applications.
Mr. Ehsan Abasi
Islamic Azad University
Thermal Properties and Degradation Kinetics of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene/Graphene Nanocomposites Prepared Via in-situ Polymerization
Ehsan Abasi has completed his master of polymer engeeniring from Department of Polymer Engineering, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran and coaporate with Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran for complete his research in this field. He has published more than 3 papers in industrial conferences in iran and has been working as a technical consultant in engineering use of recycled plastics for Iraniyan compounding industries.Abstract
Thermal degradation behavior of Graphene/Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) nanocomposites, prepared via in-situ polymerization with a novel, Bi-supported Ziegler–Natta catalytic system has been studied with different Graphene contents (0.9, 2.1 and 3.4 wt%). Nanocomposite formation was established by X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy, and thermal properties have been investigated using Thermoanalysis of TGA/SDTA; DSC(differential scanning calorimetry), and TGA(thermal gravimetric analysis). TGA spectra revealed that these nanocomposites had enhanced thermal stability, and no significant mass loss (<0.4 wt%) occurred up to 370 . Thermal degradation kinetics was investigated by model free and model fitting methods. The calculated activation energy in all methods sa the Graphene loading increased up to 2.1 wt% indicating that Graphene had a stabilizing effect on the degradation of the matrix. However, loadings of 3.4 wt% or more of Graphene slightly decreased the activation energy.
Dr. Sean Perry
Tshwane University of Technology
AMD Treatment Using Modified Sisal/Chitosan Nanocomposite as an Adsorbent
Will be Updated Soon...Abstract
Dr. Alessandra Carbone
CNR – Institute for Advanced Energy and Technologies “Nicola Giordano” of Messina, Italy.
Anionic Polysulfone based Membranes for AMFC
Alessandra Carbone (female) is a permanent researcher at the CNR-ITAE, graduated in Chemistry at the University of Perugia (1999) and achieved a Ph.D. at the University of Rome Tor Vergata on the theme field Materials for Environment and Energy (2006). Her scientific activity has been focused on the development and characterisation of proton and anion conducting materials for polymer electrolyte fuel cells, Vanadium Redox Flow Battery and Hydrogen Storage. She is involved in various research programs related to the development of components for low and medium temperature fuel cells. She published about 41 papers in international journals (more than 500 citations and H-index: 12 from SCOPUS ORCID id 0000-0003-0493-4479), 1 book chapter (Elsevier) and she had 87 contributions in national and international conferences. Since 2014 she is the Italian agent of the Annex 31 (Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells) of the IEA (International Energy Agency) - Advanced Fuel Cells Implementing Agreement.Abstract
Dr. Eman Helmi Tawfik
New Core-Shell Hyperbranched Chitosan with p-Phenylinediamine Based Nanoparticles as Optical Sensor for Ammonia DetectionBiography
Eman has completed his PhD from Mansoura University, Egypt. She is assistant professor in Taibah University and Mansoura University. She has published more than 13 papers in reputed journals and supervised upon 12 thesis some of them awarded and the others are still working.Abstract
Synthesis of novel core-shell amino-terminated hyperbranched chitosan with p-phenylinediamine nanoparticles (HBCs-NH2) NPs is described. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by ninhydrin assay, FTIR, DSC, and SEM. The novel prepared (HBCs-NH2) NPs were then used as a platform for facile and controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) which was established by FTIR, UV-Vis spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, SEM and HRTEM. The formation of the AgNPs was also noted upon variation in the color of (HBCs-NH2) NPs suspension from colorless into yellow as well as through the occurrence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 400 nm. HRTEM showed a uniform and spherical morphology of the resulting HBCs-NH2 NPs with average size 400 nm, and the AgNPs were formed mainly on their surface with average size of 20-50 nm. The novel developed (HBCs-NH2) NPs-AgNPs showed a great potential as optical sensor for efficient detection of the ammonia concentration in solutions based on the change in the SPR.
Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, México.
Grafting of Primary Amines onto Polytetrafluorethylene Film Surface Using Gamma Rays, for Possible Cell Adhesion Purposes.Biography
Efraín Rodríguez-Alba has completed his PhD from Materials Research Institute UNAM, Mexico and currently postdoctoral studies from Institute of Nuclear Sciences UNAM. He has published 14 papers in reputed journals and has been member of international congress organizing committees.Abstract
Now days there are materials designed to interact with biological systems either to treat, evaluate, increase or replace any tissue, organ or function in the body. The third generation designed biomaterials, attempt to interact with the tissue in a specific way, through elements at the cellular and molecular level, and combine the properties of bioadhesion and bioactivity within the same material. For good surface adhesion cell, surface modification can be carried out, improving the growth of tissues, an aspect of great importance in tissue engineering is to have a surface enrichment with primary amines. In this work we modified the polytetrafluorethylene film surface by grafting amide groups (acrylamide) using gamma radiation to create active sites that allow us to graft these functional groups and subsequently reduced it to primary amines by Hofmann rearrangement. The appropriate conditions to carry out graftings were determined by studying the following variables: irradiation dose, monomer concentration, temperature and reaction time. The characterization of the modified materials was carried out by infrared spectroscopy (IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), contact angle as well as electron scanning microscopy (SEM) ; the quantification of primary amines onto surface was carried out by X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS) and colorimetric method using Orange II.
Mohammad Hadi Dehghani
Tehran University, Iran
Adsorption of Cr(VI) Ions From Aqueous Systems Using Thermally Sodium Organo-Bentonite Biopolymer CompositeBiography
Professor Dr. Mohammad Hadi Dehghani (PhD) is a Full Professor at the Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Tehran, IRAN. His scientific research interests include the Environmental Health Science. He is the author of various research studies published at national and international journals, conference proceedings and Head of several research project at the TUMS. He has authored 8 books and more than 150 full papers published in peer- reviewed journals. He is an editorial board member and reviewer in many internal and international journals and is member of several international science committees around the world. He has supervisor and advisor PhD and MSc theses at the TUMS. He is currently also member of the Iranian Association of Environmental Health (IAEH) and member of the Institute for Environmental Research (IER) at the TUMS.Abstract
Chromium, as a serious environmental contaminant, is frequently encountered in different indus-trial effluents. In the present study, we focused on the combined application of a surfactant-modified bentonite and chitosan for the removal of Cr(VI). In addition, the effects of several important param¬eters such as pH (2–8), adsorbent dosage (0.1–1.5 g/L), Cr(VI) concentration (20–200 mg/L) and con¬tact time (60–240 min) were also investigated and the process was optimized by means of response surface methodology. The analysis of variance of the quadratic model demonstrates that the model was highly significant. Optimized values of pH, adsorbent dosage, initial Cr(VI) concentration and contact time were found to be 3.7, 1.40 g/L, 77 mg/L and 180 min, respectively. The results revealed that the prepared adsorbent had significant adsorption capacity (124.1 mg/g) for Cr(VI). All results showed that thermally sodium organo-bentonite biopolymer composite (TSOBC) had a good affinity toward Cr(VI). Among the isotherm models tested, Langmuir isotherm model was found to be the best fit for the obtained data. The adsorption kinetics indicated that Cr(VI) adsorption on TSOBC fol¬lowed pseudo-second-order better than pseudo-first-order model. Moreover, thermodynamic studies showed that adsorption of Cr(VI) on TSOBC was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The applied adsorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic techniques. Keywords: Adsorption; Cr(VI); Modified bentonite; Chitosan
Dr. Ahmed Draï
University of Mascara, Algeria.
Experimental and Finite Element Analysis of the Temperature Effect on the Behavior of Polymers During High Pressure Torsion Process.Biography
I am a professor at the University of Mascara, I got my doctorate in 2014 at the polytechnic school of oran (Maurice AUDIN) in the specialty of mechanical engineering, option materials science, I am a researcher at the laboratory of biomechanics and biomaterials (LABAB at Maurice AUDIN polytechnique school of Oran Algeria), I am preparing my diploma to be able to direct research.Abstract
The high pressure torsion (HPT) is an efficient process to obtain enhanced microstructures via super-plastic deformation. In view of its optimization, it is of prime importance to assess the relationships between processing conditions and material flow. More precisely, detailed knowledge of the plastic strain distribution in the deformed material in relation to HPT processing variables is very useful. In this context, the present work is focused to highlight the effects of the temperature and the sample thickness on the plastic strain distribution into the deformed material during HPT process. To this end, the material parameters of an elasto-viscoplastic phenomenological model were derived from compressive tests at different temperatures and strain rates on a typical thermoplastic polymer (high density polyethylene (HDPE)). The distribution of the equivalent plastic strain, the pressing force and the torque required were analyzed. Recommendations on process conditions were proclaimed at the end of this work. Keywords: HPT, HDPE, Finite element method, Plastic strain
Mr. Teklay Asgedom teferi
Conversion of Finished Leather Waste Incorporated With Plant Fibers in To Value Added Consumer Products – An Effort to Minimize Solid Waste in EthiopiaBiography Abstract
Presently, the leftovers from leather product industries are discarded as waste in Ethiopia. The objective of the present study was therefore, to prepare composite sheets by incorporating various plant fibers like enset (Ensete ventricosum), hibiscus (Hibiscus cannabinus), jute (Corchorus trilocularis L.), palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and sisal (Agave sisal) in various proportions into the leather waste. Resin binder (RB) and natural rubber latex (NRL) were used as binding agents for the preparation of the composite sheets. The composite sheets prepared were characterized for their physicochemical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break, stitch tear strength, water absorption, water desorption and flexing strength). Composite sheets prepared using RB having 10 % hibiscus, 20 % palm and 40 % sisal fibers showed better mechanical properties than their respective controls. In composite sheets prepared using NRL having 30 % jute fiber exhibited better mechanical properties than its control. Most of the plant fibers used in this study played a role in increasing the performance of the sheets. However, as seen from the results, the contribution of these plant fibers on performance of the composite sheets prepared is dependent on the ratio used and the nature of binder. The SEM studies have exhibited the composite nature of the sheets and FTIR studies have shown the functional groups of collagen protein, cellulose and binders. The prepared sheets were used as raw materials for preparation of items like stiff hand bags, ladies’ purse, keychain, chappal upper, wallet, wall cover, mouse pad and other interior decorating products. By preparing such value added products, we can reduce solid waste; minimize environmental pollution and thereby securing environmental sustainability. Key words: - Ethiopia; leather waste; composite sheet; plant fibers; and binders
Dr. Marco Filippo Gatto
University of Messina-Italy, Italy
Activated Carbons from Natural Wastes for Hydrogen Storage ApplicationsBiography
Marco F. Gatto is PhD student in Chemistry of University of Messina. He carries out his activity at Italian National Research Council – Institute of Advanced Technologies for Energy of Messina (CNR – ITAE). He got his BSc in Chemistry at University of Messina in 2015, his MSc in Supramolecular and Nanotechnology Chemistry at University of Messina in 2017. Currently, his doctoral activity is focused on the study and design of new materials for hydrogen storage applications.Abstract
Activated Carbons (AC) are highly porous materials and they are widely used for industrial treatments and purification of liquids and gas. Different commercial ACs exist: in fact, their porosity, surface area and elemental composition are function of the parent materials and activation methods (thermal and/or chemical activations). Materials with these properties are interesting for hydrogen (or other gases) storage in cryogenic conditions, too. The hydrogen sorption measurements with BET instrument on AC obtained (0.60 %wt at 500 mmHg and 77 K) by banana peels, chemically activated by KOH, are promising in this field. Activated carbon by coffee grounds have also been studied. The results obtained by physical, chemical and morphological charactherizations, hydrogen adsorption measurements and a comparison between them, varying the activation processes of ACs of banana peels and coffee ground, are showed and discussed in this work.
Dr. Mohammed Monier
Taibah University, Saudi Arabia
Synthesis of Imprinted Styrene-Maleic Acid Functionalized Resin for Enantio-Selective Extraction of R-AmphetamineBiography
M. Monier has completed his PhD at the age of 32 years from Mansoura University, Egypt and postdoctoral studies from Chemistry Department, Drexel University, USA. He was the director of Polymer lab in Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Egypt before temporary contracting with Taibah University in Saudi Arabia. He has published more than 44 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of repute.Abstract
This article presents the development of an enantio-selective polymeric resin based on cross-linked styrene-maleic acid copolymer for chiral recognition of R-amphetamine and efficient optical resolution of (±)-amphetamine racemate. In the beginning, a polymerizable R-amphetamine-maleimide derivative was synthesized and investigated using elemental analysis, FTIR, and NMR spectroscopy to affirm the chemical structure. The chiral maleimide derivative was then copolymerized with styrene and divinylbenzene via free radical polymerization and the obtained polymeric resin was agitated with sodium hydroxide followed by HCl to expel the R-amphetamine template molecules out of the polymer texture. The obtained molecularly imprinted polymer was characterized using SEM, FTIR and EDX spectra then evaluated for selective removal of R-amphetamine under various conditions. The results indicated that the maximum uptake was achieved at pH 7 and the adsorption was performed in accordance with the Langmuir model with a maximum capacity of 210±1 mg/g. In addition, the optical separation was carried out using a column and the results indicated approximate enantiomeric excess values of 76.5% and 56.5% within both supernatant and eluant solution referring to S- and R-amphetamine approximately, respectively.
Dr. Amsalu Efrem Yemene
Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Direct Arylation Polymerization towards Narrow Bandgap Conjugated Microporous Polymers with Hierarchical PorosityBiography
Amsalu Efrem has completed his PhD from Nanyang Tecechnological University (NTU), Singapore and currntly holding a postdoctoral position at Norwegian University of science and Technology (NTNU), Norway. I have published more than eight papers in reputed journals.Abstract
Direct arylation polymerization has been extensively used to investigate the synthesis of linear one-dimensional (1D) donor-acceptor conjugated polymers. However, this synthesis method is extended to the synthesis of another type of multidimensional conjugated polymers, like conjugated microporous polymers. Conjugated microporous polymers (CMPs) are a unique class of polymers that inherently combines -conjugation with microporosity. CMPs have attracted increasing interests due to their potential applications in optoelectronics, gas adsorption, storage, separations, and heterogeneous catalysis. To date CMPs have been mainly synthesized through similar methods to linear conjugated polymers, mainly via transition metal catalyzed cross-coupling reactions such as Suzuki coupling, Stille coupling, Sonogashira−Hagihara coupling, and Yamamoto coupling. Nevertheless, some of these methods (particularly Stille coupling) generally involve tedious preactivation of C-H bonds with organometallic reagents and formation of a stoichiometric amount of toxic byproducts. Cheaper and more efficient synthetic procedures would clearly be a great asset for the large-scale preparation and applications of CMPs. Therfore, narrow-bandgap CMPs have been synthesized via facile direct arylation polymerization of 8,11-dibromodithieno [3,2-a:2′,3′-c]phenazine. The resulting polymers form hierarchical structures of relatively uniform and rigid nanorods which aggregate further into larger-scale tubes and flat sheets. These polymers displayed good thermal stability, a moderate surface area and dominant pore size distribution in the microporous region. The porosity could be tuned by changing the reaction time and temperature of the polymerization. This work demonstrates that C–H direct arylation coupling as a facile synthetic tool enables efficient synthesis of conjugated microporous polymers with controllable structures and properties. We are currently broadening the scope of other CMPs that can be synthesized via DAP and are exploring their applications such as selective gas adsorption, photocatalysis, and sensing.
Dr. Natalia Selivanova
Kazan National Research Technological University
Biocompatible Lyotropic Delivery Systems based on Biopolymer Chitosan and Lactic AcidBiography Abstract
The recent problem in the field of pharmacology and biomedicine has been the development of systems for the targeted delivery of bioactive substances. A large number of physiologically active substances that have a high therapeutic potential - possessing biochemical and pharmacological activity, do not become medicinal preparations. This is due to unwanted side effects, as well as problems associated with penetration into cells and weak fixation in tissues exposed to therapeutic effects. The solution to this problem is the development of nanocarriers for drug delivery.
In the last decade increasing interest in the use of lyotropic mesophases as matrices for delivery and controlled release of drugs and bioactive substances has been observed. The fact that many of the lyotropic liquid crystalline (LLC) phases have a priori nanoscale pore space with an ordered distribution in the bulk mesophase, provides high and uniform loading of the drug.
In the present work, we demonstrate new biocompatible lyotropic liquid crystal system based on biopolymer chitosan and lactic acid (Chit/LA). To expand the concentration boundaries of lyomesophases ternary systems: chitosan/lactic acid/nonionic surfactant (C12EO4) were synthesized. Using the method of polarization optical microscopy the phase behavior of systems was studied. The concentration and temperature boundaries of mesophase were found. Under polarized light Chit/LA systems demonstrate chiral structure (see Fig. 1a) and Chit/LA/C12EO4 systems show lamellar mesophase (see Fig. 1b).
Figure 1. The textures of the samples Chit/LA, magnification × 150 (a), and Chit/LA/C12EO4 magnification × 50 (b).
To estimate the intermolecular interactions of the components of the LLC, the FTIR spectra of individual and multicomponent systems were obtained. According to FTIR data in Chit/LA mesophase there is a complex in the form of an ion pair [Chit+ • CH3-CH(OH)-COO–]. Under creation of ternary systems: Chit/LA/C12EO4 there is reason to assume the formation of complex C12EO4[Chit+ • CH3-CH(OH)-COO–] produced by hydrogen bonds involving oxygen of oxyethylated group.
In vitro release of bioactive substances - vitamin B2 (riboflavin) from synthesized LLC systems, using the Franz diffusion cell as a transmembrane model of passive diffusion was studied. The in vitro release of riboflavin from synthesized LLC, in comparison with the found close dynamic viscosity values, indicates a significant effect of supramolecular organization of mesophases on the rate of mass transfer. Analysis of the kinetics of mass transfer of riboflavin showed that the proposed biocompatible systems have a great potential as a delivery system for bioactive substances.
Acknowledgements: This work was supported by to the grant of RFBR (18-03-00173)
Dr. Chika Ezeanyanaso
Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi, Lagos State
Microbial Surfactants for Use in the Food, Pharmeaceutical, Oil and Gas IndustriesBiography
1. Dr. Orji Frank Anayo holds a PHD Degree in Microbiology (Environmental Microbiology), and has been a research officer in the Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi-lagos, Nigeria since 2011. He has over twenty research publications in the area of biotechnology and bioremediation.
Dr. Chika Ezeanayanaso holds a PhD in Polymer Chemistry, has been the head of Polymer and Textile Technology, Division of Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Lagos-Nigeria special interest in engineering designs and modeling in the area of bioremediation of polluted soil and water ecosystems.
Microbial surfactants are structurally diverse group of surface active substances produced by microorganisms. The microorganisms that produce Biosurfactants include Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Micrococcus, Mycobacterium, Rhodococcus. All Biosurfactants are amphiphiles: consists of two parts –a polar (hydrophilic) moiety a non-polar (hydrophobic) group. They have ability to break complex lipid to smaller units. This product is useful adjuvants in vaccine development, in the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted soil ecosystem. For the isolation of biosurfactant producing bacteria, soil samples were collected from crude oil polluted soil undergoing bioremediation in Port Harcourt. The soil samples were collected with the use of soil auger into sterile polythene a stored at low temperature till use. The enumeration of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (HUB) was done by using the mineral salt Agar/ vapour phase method. Pure bacterial isolates were screened further with oil spreading technique, blood haemolysis test, and emulsification index to confirm their potentials for hyper-production of biosurfactants. The total hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial population ranged between 1.2 ×104 - 1.00 ×1 07 cfu/gram of soil. The hyper-producers were taxonomically identified to be strains of Pseudomonas species, Bacillus species and Serratia species. In terms of blood heamolysin test: ED102, ED101 and ED301 had the highest clearance zones of 28, 13 and 15mm while ED102 and ED111 had the highest oil spreading zones of 20mm and 12mm respectively. The deep blue coloration of the biosurfactants of most of the studied microorganisms showed they are of anionic origin. Optimization of nitrogen sources and carbon sources showed that ammonium nitrate and glucose were the best sources of nitrogen and carbon respectively. The exopolymeric substances have the potential of assisting in the development of novel conjugate vaccines and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon, thereby restoring soil fertility.
Key words: Agriculture, exopolymer, petroleum, contamination, biodegradation, and soil fertility
REFERENCES Adenipekun, C.O. (2008). Bioremediation of engine-oil polluted soil by Pleurotus tuberegium singer, a Nigerian white-rot fungus. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7 (1): 55-58.
Adesodun, J.K., and Mbagwu J.S.C. (2008). Biodegradation of Waste-lubricating petroleum oil in a tropical alfisol as mediated by animal droppings. Bioresource Technology, 99(13):5659-5665.
Odokuma, L.O., and Akponah, E. (2010). Effect of nutrient supplementation on biodegradation and meal uptake by three bacteria in crude oil impacted fresh and brackish waters of the Niger Delta. Journal of Cell and Animal Biology, 4(1):001-018.
Orji, F.A., Ibiene A.A., and Dike E.N. (2012a). Laboratory-scale Bioremediation of Petroleum hydrocarbon polluted mangrove swamps in the Niger Delta using cow dung, Malaysian Journal of Microbiology, 8(4):219-228.
Orji, F.A., Ibiene, A.A., and Ugbogu, O.C. (2012b). Petroleum hydrocarbon pollution of mangrove swamps: the promises of remediation of enhanced natural attenuation. American Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 7:207-216.