Teresa Leonor Ribeiro Cardoso Martins Morgado is ph. D in Mechanical Engineering by Instituto Superior Técnico of Lisbon University, Master in Mechanical Engineering option of Materials and Manufacturing Processes by Faculty of Engineering of the O ́Porto University. Teresa, holds Associate Professor Public Examinations in the scientific area of Production Technology and Construction of Mechanical Engineering Department of Polytechnic Institute of Tomar. Currently, consolidate her position as researcher in the Scientific Instrumentation Centre of the R&D institute calls LNEC (by mobility inter career) with Associate Professor on Engineering Departmental Unit of Tomar Polytechnic Institute (IPT) and member of the UNIDEMI/ FCTUNL - Research and Development Unit for Mechanical and Industrial Engineering/ Faculty of Science and Technology - Universidade NOVA de Lisboa. Since 2017 Teresa is researcher in UNIDEMI – FCT/UNL. During 2016 until the end of 2018 Teresa consolidate her position in IPT with Professor in the Faculty of Science and Technology of Universidade NOVA de Lisboa. From 2014 until 2016, Teresa was President of Forum and Researcher at CeFEMA/UL - Center of Physics and Engineering of Advanced Materials of IST/UL - Instituto Superior Técnico of Lisbon University. She was Research Member at ICEMS/UL – Institute of Materials and Surface Science and Engineering/ University of Lisbon since 2001 until 2014. In IST collaborated as researcher for twenty years. Teresa is author and co-author of dozens of scientific publications and Technical Consulting reports; and guided dozens of jobs in industry internships like foundries, food industry, automotive industry, railway industry, hospitals, metalworking industry, paper industry, industrial moulds and injection plastic materials industry. Throughout her career, she has been organizer at international conferences as Member of the Local Organizing Committees, Member of Advisory Committees and Member of the International Scientific Committees. 2/2 Lisbon, 3 rd of October of 2019 Teresa Morgado is member of several editorial boards and is permanent member of several societies as Order of Engineers (OE), Materials Portuguese Association (SPM), Portuguese Society for Experimental Analysis of Stress (APAET), European Structural Integrity Society (ESIS) and Ibero-American Federation of Mechanical Engineering (FeIbIm/FelbEm), ATTCEI (Portuguese Association of Knowledge and Technology Transfer). Researching since September 1995 and teaching since October 1993, has taken different positions like Member of Engineering Departmental Unit Council, Member of the Technical Scientific Councils of Research Centers (CIC-LNEC, LNEC, UNIDEMI-FCT/UNL, CeFEMA-IST-UL, ICEMS-IST-UL), Member of the Technical Scientific Council of Technology School of Abrantes, Member of the Commission for Evaluation and Accreditation of Mechanical Engineering course, Internship Nucleus Member of the Mechanical Engineering course, Council Member of Mechanical Engineering Department, Member of the Scientific Council Plenary, Pedagogical Coordinator of Mechanical Engineering course, Representative Member of Mechanical Engineering Department Associate Professors at the Pedagogical Council.
Selective laser melting (SLM) is one promising technology able to meet these goals, allowing the production of complex geometries, directly from three-dimensional CAD models, in short time frames, and at low cost.In general, SML products have a cast structure, high superficial roughness, microstructural heterogeneities, presence of pores, and thermal stresses, consequence of pronounced temperature gradients and significant cooling rates. Despite these drawbacks, several studies have suggested that their monotonic properties can be similar to those of the components manufactured using conventional processes. However, a major concern regarding sintered products is the fatigue behaviour. Due to the combination of cyclic loading histories, stress concentration phenomena associated with the complex shapes, and defects and microstructural heterogeneities formed during the fabrication, they have high susceptibility to fatigue failure. Although there is extensive literature on SLM, either devoted to the production of sintered objects using different metallic powders, or to the influence of sintering parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties, very few studies have addressed the fatigue phenomenon. In particular, systematic studies devoted to strain-controlled low-cycle fatigue are scarce. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to study, in a systematic manner, the cyclic plastic behaviour of AISI H13 steel manufactured by selective laser melting. For this purpose, low-cycle fatigue tests of standard cylindrical specimens, under fully-reversed strain-controlled conditions, with strain amplitudes ranging from 0.3% to 1.0%, are performed. Before testing, microstructural features are investigated by optical microscopy. The size and density of anomalies (i.e. porosities, lack of fusion, inclusions, micro-cracking, among others) are also quantified via CT-scan. After testing, fracture surfaces are examined by scanning electron microscopy to identify the main fracture micro-mechanisms.
Ricardo Branco has completed his PhD degree in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Coimbra. He is currently Professor at the Department of Mechanical Engineering of the University of Coimbra, Portugal. Research Interest Structural integrity, mechanical behaviour of materials, fatigue and fracture of engineering materials, fatigue analysis of mechanical and structural notched components, application of finite element method to fracture mechanics.
Interaction between solar light/radiation and matter is studied and applied at least since the Classic Antiquity. Then nowadays it is well-known that, either for residential, commercial, or industrial applications, solar heating and cooling technologies are commercially available to provide hot water, space heating, cooling, pool heating, etc. On the contrary, the so-called high-concentration or high-flux “solar furnaces” which pertain to attain much higher temperatures are much less used. In fact, the current state-of-the-art on the use of concentrated solar energy applied to materials science and metallurgy is far for being so widely known. The main reason for being less widespread is because high-concentration solar furnaces are relatively more expensive. In fact, although available in several labs distributed throughout the world, till now all high-flux solar furnaces have been designed and constructed individually i.e. in a one-by-one basis because there are several possible optical configurations, which must take into account the geographical location, and the maximum power to be attained. However, recent applications of solar furnaces ‒ equipped with reactors or process chambers and specially designed accessories, used for physical and chemical processes requiring high (>400°C) and very high (>1500°C) temperatures ‒ demonstrate the tremendous potentialities of the intelligible usage of solar heat for materials processing, but also reveal the need for further efforts in order to develop the solar-driven high-temperature technologies (which are needed to displace the use of electricity or natural gas). For that, it is essential to improve the temperature homogeneity conditions inside reaction chambers for materials processing using solar heat. Also, new innovative modular systems, practical and flexible, for capture, concentration, control and conduction of solar radiation are being envisaged.
Luís Guerra ROSA is Associate Professor with Aggregation at Instituto Superior Tecnico (IST Lisbon), Universidade de Lisboa. Main URL: https://fenix.ist.utl.pt/homepage/ist11630 He concluded his graduation in Metallurgical Engineering in 1977; got a Doctor degree in Mechanical Engineering in 1986; and the title of “Agregado” in Materials Science in 2004. Head of Dept. of Materials Sci. & Engng. at IST Lisbon during the periods 1998-2000 and 2004-2008; he also served as Director at INETI´s Dept. of Materials (Lisbon) in 1993-1995. Presently, he is the representative of IST-ID in the European Union H2020-LCE-2016-ERA initiative “Integrating National Research Agendas on Solar Heat for Industrial Processes (INSHIP)” and coordinator of a research group working on materials processing and intelligible usage of solar heat for industrial processes.
Associate Professor, Dr Willie Nheta. Graduated from Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys. Senior Researcher at University of Johannesburg, South Africa. Research interests in Mineral Processing and hydrometallurgy.
A review of the most up-to-date research focused on manufacturingfinished products with superior and unique properties from metal powders will be provided. The methodology, approach, and the techniques adopted will be explained in each case. The coverage will include research on metal additive manufacturing (MAM), welding porous to solid metal components, fabricating powder metallurgy parts having porositygradient, and the production ofmetal matrix composites through employing an innovative powder metallurgy technique.Furthermore, a discussion of proposed research to supplement the current one in each of the aforementioned areas will also be provided.
Dr. Sherif D. El Wakil is an Emeritus Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth where he held the rank of Chancellor Professor of Mechanical Engineering. Dr. Elwakil currently serves as aconsultantfor product failure analysis and product design assessmentand as a technical expert witness before courts. Dr. El Wakil has over 40 years of experience in academia, teaching various manufacturing engineering courses at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. He also served in various administrative functions, including Dean, Chairman of the Academic Council of the College of Engineering, and Chairman of the Mechanical Engineering Department. Dr. El Wakil has implemented multiple programs at the undergraduate and graduate levels and oversaw their ascendency to national ranking. Dr. El Wakil is the author of "Processes and Design for Manufacturing" which has been translated into multiple languages and adopted at many of the world's top engineering programs. He received many research grants from NSF, NIST, SME, and was awarded the USAF Fellowship. Dr. El Wakil provided consulting work for numerous national and international manufacturing corporations, and served as an expert witness before courts. He has been a member of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) since 1984, and waselected amember of the North American Manufacturing Research Institute (NAMRI) in the same year. He also served as a member and chair of the Curriculum Committee of the SME Education Foundation. His professional excellence and consistent contributions tothe activities of the SME have been acknowledged with the President's Award twice, in 1985 and 2006. Finally, he became a life-long member of SME in 2015.
Here, amorphous carbon nanotubes were introduced, the preparation methods and the unique equipment of temperature-controlled arc discharging furnace, the performance such as hydrogen storage, electrochemical properties, electromagnetic wave absorption et al were also presented. Amorphous carbon nanotubes are another kind of carbon nanotubes, it can be used in many fields in the future.
Dr. Tingkai Zhao is currently working as a full professor in School of Materials Science and Engineering of Northwestern Polytechnical University (NPU) and has accomplished his PhD degree from Xi’an Jiaotong University (XJTU) in 2005, China. He has visited Northwestern University (Evanston, USA) and University of Oxford (Oxford, UK) as a visiting scholar. As a director of NPU-NCP Joint International Research Center on Advanced Nanomaterials & Defects Engineering, the vice-director of Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Graphene New Carbon Materials & Applications. His research group mainly investigates the synthesis, structure and performance of advanced carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes (especially amorphous carbon nanotubes), graphene, flexible graphite, 2D nanomaterials, MXene and their applications in composites, energy conversion (solar cell, supercapacitor and Li-ion batteries), smart device and biosensors. He has published 2 kooks, 13 Chinese Invention patents and more than 100 academic articles on SCI journals, and also obtained more than 25 Awards and Honors such as the first prize of Shaanxi Science and Technology Awards in 2013 etc., and 4 times scientific reports in《China Science Daily》 newspapers for his research achievements. And he has also been elected as a commissioner of Xi’an Nanoscience & Technology Society.
Will be updated soon
Maurício Leonardo Torem is a metallurgical and industrial engineer (1977) – PUC-Rio. He undertook his master degree in metallurgical engineering (1980) at the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio) and his doctorate degree in metallurgical engineering/ mineral processing at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (1989). He works with the Department of ChemicalEngineering and Materials– Pontifical Catholic University since 1983. He is the Head of the Mineral Processing Research Group. His main research areas are: Environmental and Mineral Biotechnology applied to metals uptake from liquid streams and mineral flotation and more recently, urban mining. He has published many articles in scientific journals and in conferences.
The chemical energy in EAF can be improved by the oxidation reaction of components in molten steel with injection of oxygen, and the improvement of chemical energy can reduce electrical energy consumption and CO2 emissions. When the carbon based powder used as commercial chemical energy source is added to the molten steel, the powder floated to the slag layer due to the low density and high melting points before the complete dissolution of carbon. On the other hand, the Al-dross, containing at least 27 mass% of metallic Al, is very useful for the oxidation source in EAF, although the recycling of Al-dross is not conducted sufficiently due to the cost and the environmental issues. In this study, the influence of temperature of molten steel on the dissolution behavior of carbon and Al in molten steel were investigated with varying the mixing ratios of oxidation source using cokes powder and Al-dross for the improvements of chemical energy yields. Firstly, the mixture of cokes powder and Al-dross were charged into a Fe crucible at a given mass ratio. The Fe crucible was used to prevent floating of carbon. Then, the electrolytic iron was placed in the lower part of the alumina crucible and the Fe crucible with the cokes and Al-dross was charged on the electrolytic iron. The sample was reacted at a given temperature (1823 - 1973 K) for 0 to 7200 seconds in Ar atmosphere. The sample was taken out and quenched by water. The composition of quenched sample was analyzed by C/S and ICP-AES.
Sun-Joong KIM has completed his PhD from Tohoku University, Japan and was Assistant professor in Tohoku Unversity, Japan. He is Assistant professor in Chosun University, Korea. He has published more than 25 peer reviewed papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of Korean Institute of Resources recycling.
Steelmaking slag contains considerable amount of manganese (Mn) and phosphorus (P), and in Japan, for resource security, the recycling them is an important issue. Since Mn is an alloy added to enhance the steel quality, while P is a harmful impurity in the steel product, they need to be separated for recycling. For this purpose, two principles are considerable. One is to use the different property of each mineralogical phase in slag, and the other is to use the different thermodynamic property of each element in slag. In steelmaking slag, P is enriched in the dicalcium silicate phase (C2S). As the solubility of this phase to the aqueous solution is widely different from that of other phases in slag, we have proposed the leaching treatment to separate C2S phase from slag. By the fundamental experiments, the optimum conditions of aqueous solution and chemistry of slag were clarified. In thermodynamics, MnO is basic oxide but P2O5 is acid oxide, and the temperature dependences of the equilibrium constants of their reduction reactions are widely different. In the hot metal de-P process, Mn in the hot metal is not oxidized during de-P, because of the formation of a highly basic slag with low oxygen potential. This operation indicates that the selective oxidation of Mn or P is conducted. Based on these facts, we have already found the possibility of separating Mn and P from steelmaking slag by selectively reducing P2O5 and FeO while suppressing the reduction of MnO.
SHIN-YA KITAMURA has graduated from Tohoku University, Japan and granted Dr. Eng. From Kyushu Univeristy, Japan. He worked in Nippon Steel Corp., for 25 years as a researcher of steelmaking field. Now, he is a profrssor of the Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University. He has published more than 100 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial-in-chief of Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy.
Color can be an extremely valuable tool in the study of microstructures of metals and alloys. Its use was limited in the past by the expense of film, printing and publications. But, in the digital era, most of those limitations are gone. The remaining limitation to the use of color is that specimen preparation must remove all damage induced during sectioning, grinding and polishing and the effort to do this is often perceived to be excessive in the workplace. But, proper preparation guarantees that you will see the true microstructure, rather than preparation-induced artifacts.Very effective preparation methods do exist for all commercial metals and alloysthat are not excessively time consuming. Color microstructure images have numerous inherent advantages over black and white images. First, the human eye is sensitive to only about 40 shades from black to white, but sensitivity to color variations is almost unlimited, unless one is color blind. Color etchants are usually phase specific in that they preferentially color either the anodic matrix phase or the cathodic second phase. Consequently, they are useful in phase identification and image analysis. Single-phase grain structures are colored according to the crystal orientation of each grain. If a specimen has a random texture, we see a random distribution of a wide range of colors; but if it has a preferred orientation, the color range is very narrow. Color etchants excel at revealing segregation and residual deformation. B&W etchants do not, or are poor, for revealing crystal orientations, segregation and residual deformation. Color, for certain metals and alloys, may be obtained in the as-polished condition with crossed polarized light if the metal has a non-cubic crystal structure (Sb, Be, Bi, Cd, Mg, Ru, Sc, Sn, Ti, U, Zn, Zr) and if the preparation work has been performed properly. Natural color is very limited in metals (Cu and Au are yellow), although some intermetallic compounds, such Al2Au, do exhibit color. Color may be observed in dark field, for example, Cu2O is ruby red in DF and pale blue in BF. Color can be created in Nomarski DIC, although it has no physical significance but may be quite lovely. This lecture is designed to show the beauty of microstructures, and the value of color etchantsin metallographic studies compared to B&W etchants. Examples will be shown of many different metals and alloys.
George Vander Voort, principal of Vander Voort Consulting LLC and consultant to Struers inc., is a graduate of Drexel and Lehigh Universities. Drexel presented George with the Distinguished Alumnus Award in 2005 and the Service to the Profession Award in 2016. He had 29 years’ experience in the steel industry. A past president of the International Metallographic Society and past chairman of ASTM Committee E-4 on Metallography, George has over 447 publications, 6 patents, 451 lectures in 42 countries, a video course, and 8 ASTM standards. He has taught 281 seminars and courses and has received 36 awards in metallography contests. He was a trustee for ASM International and is on the editorial boards of Praktische Metallographie/Practical Metallography; Metallography, Microstructure and Analysis; Image Analysis and Stereology; and, the International Journal of Microstructure and Materials Properties. He is a Fellow of ASTM International, ASM International and the International Federation of Heat Treatment and Surface Engineers. He is a Fellow and Honorary Life Member of Alpha Sigma Mu metallurgy and materials science honorary society and an honorary member of the Polish Society for Stereology.
In the current paper the novel aspect in the area of the materials properties optimization will be shown. It is connected with the laser oriented deposition technique use in order to improve the transparency, mechanical hardness, refractive coefficient and wetting angle of the materials operated in the UV-VIS-IR spectral ranges. The features of the vertically aligned carbon nanotubes, as the effective nanoobjects, will be concidered. The comparative results will be shown for the Al, Cu, Sc, Si, ITO, NaCl, etc. modified materials. Some physical mechanisms responsible for the materials properties modification will be discussed. Analytical and quantumchemical simulation are supported the experimental data. The results obtained can extend the area of the applications of the laser treated materials via nanotechnology approach. Partially, the observed phenomena have been previously published in the papers [1-3].  N.V.Kamanina, etc. “Advantages of the Surface Structuration of KBr Materials for Spectrometry and Sensors”, Sensors 2018, 18(9), doi: 10.3390/s18093013  N. V. Kamanina, etc., ”Control of the IR-spectral shift via modification of the surface relief between the liquid crystal matrixes doped with the lanthanide nanoparticles and the solid substrate”, Optics Express, Vol. 24, No. 2, 6 pages, 2016.  N.V. Kamanina, “Nanoparticles doping influence on the organics surface relief”, Journal of Molecular Liquids 283 (2019) 65–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2019.03.043
Prof., Dr. Sci., PhD Natalia Vladimirovna Kamanina – Leader of the team, Head of the Laboratory for Photophysics of media with nanoobjects at Vavilov State Optical Institute. She coordinates the job of the team, participate at all experiments and analyze the data. She has current interest in the areas of investigations on inorganic and organic materials operated in the UV and IR range, innovative nanostructured coatings, metals, semiconductors, fullerenes, biological objects, laser-matter interaction. She is Federal Russian expert in scientific-technical area. In parallel of her scientific activity, she has been lecturing from 2002. She is a Professor of the St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University “LETI” (2002-present). She was a superviser of 5 PhD-researches, which succesfully defended their PhD-thesis. Author ID: 55980751700.
Mixing phenomena due to gas injection contributes to improve the rate of chemical reactions and removal of impurities in metallurgical reactors such as the ladle furnace. Mixing efficiency has been investigated in the past 40 years using mixing time and more recently ladle eye as efficiency indicators, however, the effect of the mixing conditions on mass transfer has been poorly investigated. Our current knowledge on mixing time and mass transfer indicates that both phenomena cannot be improved simultaneously. This knowledge is based on a limited set of conditions of experimental work, basically using one nozzle and central gas injection, with few cases using off-center gas injection. The purpose of the current work is to explore in more detail the effect of the gas injection conditions on mass transfer using thymol as the transferred specie from water to the top oil layer.
Mexican Professor at the University of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB), School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, since September 2018, currently rated number one metallurgy department in the world. His academic background and research activities have been focused on ferrous metallurgy, in particular application of thermodynamics and kinetics of gas-solid reactions, kinetics of steel refining in the ladle furnace, physical modeling of bottom stirring in metallurgical ladles, slag foaming in the EAF, mathematical modeling of DRI melting in the EAF, etc.. Professor Conejo has worked pretty close with the steel industry in Mexico for more than 20 years. He has published 50 technical articles in peer-reviewed journals of high impact factor. Professor Conejo has received several national and international awards for his work on slag foaming in the EAF, support to the steel industry and mathematical modeling of the EAF involving DRI melting. Currently he is conducting research work on physical and mathematical modeling of gas injection in metallurgical reactors.
Since 1981, Full Professor at Department of Physics of Materials, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Prague. From 1973 till 1992 Head of the Department. From 1985 till 1990 Dean of Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University. His research activities are mainly investigation of solid solution hardening, plastic instabilities and dynamic strain ageing, mechanical properties of magnesium polycrystals, composites and nanomaterials, hardening and softening mechanisms, superplasticity, and thermally activated mechanisms, thermally properties of magnesium alloys and composites. He is author and co-author of more than 500 scientific papers published mostly in international journals with IF and reviewed conference proceedings. During the last ten years, he presented 22 invited lectures and he has been or is a member of scientific international committees of 21 international conferences (at 2 conferences he served as a chairman) His published papers are oft cited by other authors – more than 3000 citations. He was co-editor of journal “Acta Universitatis Carolinae”. He is co-author of 10 books. He has received Award of Minister of Education – First Prize in 1994 for the best text book for university students.
Creep damage is a serious problem limiting the lifetime of high-temperature components in many practical applications. A good understanding and accurate description of creep deformation and creep rupture is of great interest to people who research this field.It is generally understood that under creep conditions, the higher the temperature, the quicker the deformation and the shorter the lifetime of material. On the other hand, the higher the operating temperature, the higher the thermal efficiency for power plants.It is generally accepted that, for the majority of metals and alloys, creep rupture is due to creep cavitation at the grain boundary where cavities nucleate, grow, and coalesce. Creep continuum damage mechanics have been developed and widely used now and their applicability depends on the reliability of the development of a set of creep deformation and damage equations and the availability of a computational platform (typically finite element analysis (FEA) package). However, the most current approach in the development of creep damage constitutive equation is phenomenologically based on using macroscopic creep strain to fit models of various kinds including creep cavitation. In a comprehensive review paper, Xu et al. identified that the current phenomenological approach suffers a lack of precise understanding surrounding the damage, the constitutive model thus has issues of low reliability for extrapolation beyond the stress range which has been calibrated and difficulty in generalizing a one-dimensional constitutive equation to a three-dimensional one. This speech will report the development and applications of a fundamental new creep fracture criteria, which is scientifically sound based on cavity area fraction along grain boundaries, and its calibration with the most comprehensive and representative cavitation data produced by x-ray synchrotron tomography from EC and Japan. This is an original development and first in the world to make use of such cavitation data in the development of creep rupture criterion, and its applications to high Cr alloys has demonstrated its simplicity and accuracy in addition to the contribution to the knowledge of the creep cavitation damage and rupture.
Dr Qiang Xu is an academic staff at Huddersifeld University, UK. Specialist in the creep damage mechanics particularly in the development of creep damage constitutive equations. He has given a number of key notes speeches and served as committee members at international conferences.
Complex microstructures, as obtained by quenching and tempering (Q&T) and thermo-mechanical (TMCP) processing are investigated. The considered steels are low/medium carbon steels (C=0.06%-0.40%) with yield strength in the range YS=500-1000 MPa. Results show that the strength and the impact toughness behaviour are controlled by different microstructural parameters and not, as in the case of polygonal ferritic steels, by the same structural unit (the grain size). In particular, yield strength is controlled by the mean sub-grain size, whereas the structural unit controlling the critical cleavage stress is the covariant (bainitic or martensitic) packet, whose size is slightly lower than the average unit crack path (UCP). The critical stage in the fracture process appears to be the propagation of a Griffith crack from one packet to another, and the resistance offered by high-angle boundaries is approximately the same as that of low-C steels with bainitic or polygonal ferrite microstructure.
After completing his degree in Physics at the University of Pisa and PhD in Materials Engineering at the University of Napoli, Andrea Di Schino joined Centro Sviluppo Materiali SpA (CSM), a european leading centre for Materials Research. After spending more than 10 years in CSM he joined the University of Perugia as Professor of Metallurgy. His main interest is to combine fundamental theoretical research and experiments to explain mechanisms and discover new insight in the field of steel metallurgy. Author of more than 200 papers relating to physical metallurgy and product development, he is member of the Editorial Board od several Journals (Acta Metallurgica Slovaca, Metalugija, Journal of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Journal of Materials and Environmental Science, SciFed Journal of Metallurgical Science, Materials Research India).
In the last 30 years we polluted our planet so much, we forget that we can replace plastics by other materials. I focused mostly on cellulose, but also I work with other biopolymers. We see now that a lot of people changed their thinking and we see a lot of eco foundations, but some of them are eco-terrorists and they are even worse than anti eco movement. The most important thing is to rational. I always talk that cellulose bag can be same strong like PE bag if we will modification it. We have many modifications of paper; we can plasticize it with biopolymer like PLA, or PVA. We should focus as well on lignin. This polymer is not discovered enough. We know that we can extract it from coffee; the question is why we do not do this. The best idea is to use less classic polymers, and try to find a way of thinking how we can use biopolymers from nature. We need to plant more forests. We need to plant more vegetables and fruits. Pineapple fiber is high tech material nowadays. Look at some car companies they reduced synthetic materials, and it is very positive. We can make many parts in car industry from cellulose and it s gonna be cheaper, safer and more eco-friendly. Reinforced eco-materials can struggle high tensions. I hope we will find the way, even if now it is not possible. I would like to present modern knowledge about eco-materials. We can use a lot of fibers from nature the best example is an automotive sector, some cars have seats made from cellulose. We should also search new possibilities to crop coffee; I am very disappointed that in the nearest future, coffee can be out of stock.
During the last decade, many are the applications and authors that are developing new techniques to process liquid metal. The Al and Mg alloys processing through ultrasonic effects is one of these innovative techniques where the significant developments can be confirmed by bibliography.Although these attempts are successful in most of the cases, many of them have been reached through the trial-and-error as well as for specific conditions.In order to promote flexibility of the liquid metal processing assisted by ultrasound technique, a systematic analysis of acoustic radiators and operating conditions to be used in the melt processing should be considered. For that purpose, the present work aims to study the variability of geometries and based materials in the design of acoustic radiators for different melt processing. Considering their physical processing, a numerical model was developed to investigate the associated acoustic effects. The numerical results have shown that although the introduction of ultrasonic metal processing can promote acoustic effects in the liquid metal, its operationalization should be controlled and adjusted to tailored for different parameters. The presented optimization methodology allows the interaction between the requirements imposed by the melt conditions (i.e. the melt temperature/volume) and the constraints imposed by the manufacturing process, having as result the optimal geometry and operating conditions regarding the defined objectives. Indeed, the acoustic radiator FEA optimization and the interaction with the liquid metal is suggested to produce an enhancement on the soundness of castings as demonstrated by experimental results.
Scientifically, it is difficult to predict the relationship between global temperature and greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations. The climate system contains many processes that will change if warming occurs. Critical processes include heat transfer by winds and tides, the hydrological cycle involving evaporation, precipitation, runoff and groundwater and the formation of clouds, snow, and ice, all of which display enormous natural variability. The equipment and infrastructure for energy supply and use are designed with long lifetimes, and the premature turnover of capital stock involves significant costs. Economic benefits occur if capital stock is replaced with more efficient equipment in step with its normal replacement cycle. Likewise, if opportunities to reduce future emissions are taken in a timely manner, they should be less costly.
In this paper,Ti-6Al-4V alloys withdifferent concentrations of graphene were fabricated by ball milling and spark plasma sintering (SPS). Microstructural evolution and phase composition were analyzed by XRD, SEM, and Raman. Microhardness and the experiment of hot deformation were used to evaluate the basic mechanical properties of the composites. Results showed that in the process of SPS, most of the GNPs were well preserved at high pressure and temperature, and a small amount of TiC was formed due to the in-situ reaction between TC4 and GNPs.Also, the strength of the compositeswas depended on the concentration and dispersion of GNPs in TC4 matrix. Consequently, the composite with 0.8 wt. % GNPs increase 18% in microhardness. GNPs / TC4 composites exhibit higher strength and better compressive performance than the pure TC4 alloy. A maximum increase of approximately 22.2% and 43.2% in yield strength and ductility of the room temperature are achieved. The strengthening mechanism of the composites was further discussed, and the Orowan strengthening mechanism was the main strengthening factors. Keywords:Titanium matrix composites, Microstructure, Mechanical property, Strengthening mechanism
Due to the toxicity of widely used corrosion inhibitors and the ever tightening environmental regulations surrounding their use and disposal, there is great interest in replacing harmful inhibitors with effective non-hazardous alternatives. In recent years, several authors have begun studies of the behavior of pharmaceutical compounds in the corrosion protection of metallic alloys. After a brief overview of the use of corrosion inhibitors and their ecological alternatives in corrosion protection systems, this study presents the application of drugs as corrosion inhibitors of aluminium and mild steel in acidic solution. Aspects of the mechanism involved in the cathodic and anodic inhibition process by drugs are also dealt with. To put our work in brief, the corrosion inhibitive capabilities of drugs viz; Acarbose, Analgin, Bronopol, Ethambutol, Phenylephrine and Venlafaxine on corrosion of aluminium and mild steel in acidic solution has been studied using weight loss measurements, electrochemical methods, adsorption and kinetic study, montecarlo simulation studies and quantum chemical calculations and atomic force spectroscopy. The results indicate that all the studied compounds act as efficient inhibitors with overall inhibition efficiency in the range of 84-96% in the acidic corrodent. At constant acid concentration, the inhibition efficiency (%I) increased with increase in the concentration of the inhibitors. Increase in temperature increased the corrosion rate in the absence and presence of the inhibitors but decreased the inhibition efficiency. Inhibitors adsorbed on the surface of aluminium and mild steel according to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. Phenomenon of physical adsorption is proposed from the activation parameter obtained. Thermodynamic parameters reveal that the adsorption process is spontaneous. The reactivity of these compounds was analyzed through theoretical calculations utilizing montecarlo simulation and quantum chemical studies based on DFT method to explain the different efficiencies of these compounds as corrosion inhibitors. To study the 3D topography of metal specimen, AFM was used. From the comprehensive results drawn from this research, it is concluded that drug compounds fulfill the basic requirements for consideration as components of more environmentally-friendly formulations: low toxicity and acceptable protective capacity. In addition, these compounds can used to prepare chromate-free conversion coatings by full-immersion and electrochemical activation methods.
Due to loss of structural strengthening at temperatures beyond 250oC, heat treated aluminium alloys (e.g. AA 6061-T6) weldments are usually characterised with poor mechanical properties including hardness, tensile and impact strengths. In this work, friction stir weldments reinforced with the addition of SiC, B4C and Al2O3 particles at the joints were produced and investigated for improved hardness, tensile and impact strengths over the unreinforced weldment. The microstructure of the weldments was also examined using both optical and scanning electron microscopies. The entire reinforced welded joint exhibited improved hardness because of the enhanced metal matrix grain refinement and inherent high hardness of the reinforcement particles. B4C particle with the highest hardness produced hardest joint of about 81% of the base metal hardness (~114 HV0.3). Also, the impact energies of the SiC (16.9 J) and Al2O3 (12.2 J) reinforced weldments are closer to that of the base metal (18.6 J) compared with the unreinforced weldment (9.6 J). The reinforced weldments showed no improvement over the tensile strength of the unreinforced weldment. B4C and SiC reinforcement produced the highest improvements in the hardness (at the joint) and impact strength of the AA 6061-T6 friction stir weldments respectively.
Enzyme papain doped polypyrrole polymer were synthesized by in situ polymerization where ferric chloride works as an oxidizing agent .The different weight percent of papain was added at the time of polymerization. The polypyrrole-papain composite of various composition was analyzed for its dielectric and a.c. conductivity by using LCR meter at room temperature. Dielectric constant and loss decreases, with escalation in frequency.the variation in dielectric constant and dielectric loss was also noted with change in papain percentage in pyrrole.