Poster Presentations

Poster Presentations

Abstract

Gut microbiota represents a relevant factor that may strongly interfere with the pathophysiology of parasitic infections, determine the parasite survival and the outcome of parasitic infections. Therefore probiotics can play an important role in reducing the pathogenicity of many parasites. Nematode Trichinella spiralis causes an intestinal and tissue disease – trichinellosis characterized by the enteritis (induced by adult worms) and the inflammation with degenerative changes in the skeletal muscles (induced by larvae). The chemotherapy of trichinellosis with anthelmintics is active only against adult worms, but not against muscle larvae. Therefore, the need for developing new methods for controlling this disease is living and anti-parasitic potential of probiotic bacteria could be successful. The immunomodulatory activity of probiotic bacteria is expressed through inhibition of inflammatory response, stimulation of phagocytic activity and activation of antigen presenting cells. Macrophages are antigen presenting cells – essential in the process of phagocytosis, they release cytokines and regulate inflammation. After contact with the antigen, they stimulate and produce reactive oxygen species that are highly toxic to parasites. Superoxide anion O2- is the basic component of macrophage activity. This study was focused on the effect of probiotic and bacteriocin-producing bacterial strains on the production of superoxide anion in peritoneal macrophages of Trichinella spiralis infected mice. The strains (Enterococcus faecium EF55, Enterococcus faecium 2019 = CCM7420, Enterococcus faecium AL41 = CCM8558, Enterococcus durans ED26E/7, Lactobacillus fermentum AD1 = CCM7421, Lactobacillus plantarum 17L/1) were administered to mice daily at the dose of 100μl (109 CFU/ml) and mice were infected with 400 T. spiralis larvae on the 7th day of probiotic therapy. Production of the superoxide anion in the peritoneal macrophages was detected ex vivo. The E. faecium EF55 and E. faecium CCM8558 strains increased the O2- production prior to parasitic infection, on the day 7 of application. The administration of lactobacilli and enterococci to mice significantly stimulated the metabolic activity of macrophages throughout the experiment, with the exception of the day 18 after infection (p.i.), when a significant inhibition of the superoxide anion formation occurred in the mice with application of E. durans ED26E/7. The most significant immunomodulatory effect on the peritoneal macrophage metabolic activity during the intestinal phase of T. spiralis infection showed the strains E. faecium CCM7420 and E. faecium CCM8558, and during the muscular phase of infection the strains L. fermentum CCM7421 and L. plantarum 17L / were also positively useful. The increase in the metabolic activity of peritoneal macrophages induced by probiotic therapy in the intestinal phase of trichinellosis supported the host anti-parasite deffence and resulted in the decreased infectivity of larvae caused by damage and killing of newborn larvae with reactive oxygen species from macrophages. Therapeutic approaches with probiotics could help to reduce the risks of infestation by parasites or complement classical anti-parasite treatments.

Biography

DVM Emilia Dvoroznakova, PhD is a Head of the Department of Parasitic Diseases at the Institute of Parasitology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences (IP SAS), Kosice, Slovakia; dealing with the study of pathogenesis and diagnosis of parasitic zoonoses from aspects of changes in immunocompetent cell types and their cytokine production in helminthosis after immunomodulation and treatment. She graduated from the University of Veterinary Medicine in Košice in 1995 and defended her PhD thesis in Parasitology focused on the effect of selected anthelmintics on the immune system of paratenic host with larval toxocarsis in 1999. She was a principal investigator of several national projects and international cooperation projects with Poland, Italy, Russia. She is a member of Scientific Committee at IP SAS and the Editorial Board of international scientific journal Helminthologia. She is a member of Slovak Parasitological Society and Slovak Immunological Society. She educated 3 PhD students and gives lectures and practices for students of Biology from Faculty of Sciences at the Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice. Her research program is focused on a new therapeutic strategy to use probiotics to control parasitic zoonosis and studying a link between administration of probiotic bacteria, immune effectors induction, and parasite elimination.

Speaker
Emília Dvoroznakova / Institute of Parasitology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Slovakia.

Abstract

Previous studies demonstrated the ability of a Taenia hydatigena Vesicular Concentrate (ThVC) to induce protection against ovine hemoncosis. The aim of the study was to verify the capacity of the ThVC to module the expression of some cytokines in the abomasum of lambs with ThVC-induced protection. Four Groups (G) of lambs (n= 5) were treated: G1, controls lambs; G2, lambs infected with Haemonchus contortus; G3, lambs ThVC-inoculated and infected with H. contortus and G4, lambs ThVC-inoculated. The fecal egg count (FEC), the expression of the cytokines in fundic (FAR) and pyloric (PAR) abomasal regions and in abomasal lymph node (ALN) and, the amount of cytokines produced by LNA cell stimulated with H. contortus antigens, were determinated. Lambs of G3 had lower (p˂0.07) FEC´s than the lambs of G2. LNA cells from G2 lambs produced higher amounts of IL-2 and IL-4 than others groups. Lambs of G2 overexpressed IFNγ, IL-4 and IL-6 in the FAR and overexpressed IL-2, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6 in PAR. Lambs of G3 had overexpression of IL-10 in RFA and IL-8 in RPA while had lower expression of IFNγ in RFA and lower expression of IL- 2 in the RPA. These results showed that the administration of ThVC promotes the expression of some Th2 cytokines and the lower expression of the Th1 cytokine in the abomasal mucosa of the lambs, which is probably related to the observed protection. This work was supported by PAPIIT-UNAM IN-222316 and IN-218018 projects.

Biography

Veterinarian with a master in Microbiology and PhD in Production and Animal Health. His experience is in immunoparasitology with 23 research papers. His main research topics are the Immunobiology of Haemonchus contortus and Toxocara canis. He is professor of Microbiology in the National Autonomus University of Mexico (UNAM) with 20 year of experience.

Speaker
Marco Antonio Munoz Guzman / National Autonomus University of Mexico,Mexico

Abstract

In our study we have done comparative analysis of some bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio, Mycobacterium, Lactobacillus spp.), yeasts (Candida guilliermondii) and protozoa (Entamoeba histolytica, Ent. moshkovskii) by means of transmission, scanning and comparative electron microscopy. Based on the results obtained we suggested to study the major changes in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells revealing ultrastructural pathologies patterns during their growth on nutrient media and under the effects of different factors (ionizing and electromagnetic radiation, frequency electromagnetic field waves, disinfectants and antibiotics).. We have conditionally divided bacteria, yeasts and protozoa cell pathological changes into adaptive, balanced and irreversible-destructive types. The convenient and destructive types of structural changes could be observed within the same dose of the factor. The adaptive changes in microbes were manifested by the formation of spheroplasts, protoplasts, L- and dormant forms, nano-sized bacteria. The convenient changes in protozoa have been expressed in plasma layer as cytoplasmic ribonucleprotoeidal plasma, glycogenic and volutin structural changes as well as with the increase in the number of phagocytosis and pinocytosis vacuoles and by the disintegration of chromatin. The suggested cellular disease classification of bacteria, yeasts and protozoa can be useful for bactericidal and sporicidal study as well as for the research of mechanisms for interactions of microorganisms and different parasites with macro-organisms.

Biography

Dr. Karlen O. Hovnanyan, Dr. Sc., M.D., Head of Laboratory of Electron Microscopy in the Institute of Epidemiology, Virology and Parasitology of Health Ministry of Armenia. Since 1998 till 2016 - Head of Laboratory of Electron Microscopy of the Institute of Molecular biology of Armenian NAS, present-Head of Group Electron Microscopy of the Technological Center of Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry of NAS RA, doctorant of Department of Anatomy of Pathogen Microorganisms of the Hamaleya Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology of RAM RF, Moscow. Has more than 200 publications, Rudolf Virchow Medal of European Academy, Medal of "The Excellent of Health", Medal of ”The Veteran of Work”. President of Armenian Electron Microscopy Society, full member of the IFSM and EMS. 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003 - Editorial Chief of International Conferences of Armenian Electron Microscopy Society; Member of Advance Committee of 15-th European Microscopy Congress. Manchesterՙ; 2012 - Member Armenian Association for Molecular and Cellular Biology and Immunology; Member of International Association for Human & Animals Health Improvement; Academician of Russian Academy of Natural Sciences. Field of specialization of Molecular and Cellular Biology. Participate in the International Congress of IFSM and EMS Cancun (Mexico, 1998), Wienna (Austria, 2001), Berlin (2002, 2003), Kanazawa (Japan, 2004), Davos, (2005), Moscow (2010, 2012) Lyon (France, 2016), etc.

Speaker
Karlen O Hovnanyan / Hamaleya Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Russia

Abstract

Malaria is a prevalent problem worldwide with an estimate last 2015 of 212 million cases and 429,000 deaths caused by this disease. The risk of malaria is present throughout the Philippines, excluding areas like Metro Manila and other major urban areas. Last December 2017, DOH–MIMAROPA Regional Director Dr. Eduardo C. Janairo said that Palawan and Occidental Mindoro are still malaria-endemic (regularly found) provinces but with remarkable decrease in cases noted since 2011. Plasmodium proliferation requires iron, both during the liver stage of growth and in the disease-associated phase of RBC infection. Through the use of three iron parameters namely hemoglobin, reticulocyte count, and serum iron, the researchers examined the relationship between the iron status of 62 Mangyans (N= 173; 95% CI) and the prevalence of malaria among Mangyans in Lumangbayan, Abra de Ilog, Occidental Mindoro. The diagnosis for malarial infection was done using microscopic examination of thick and thin smear and detection of merozoite surface protein-1 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Five out of 62 samples showed positive results in detection of MSP-1 in ELISA denoting prevalence of Malaria in Lumangbayan, Abra de Ilog, Occidental Mindoro. The results showed significant relationship between the hemoglobin levels and ELISA detection of MSP-1 (p= 0.013). There is also a significant relationship between serum iron and ELISA detection of MSP-1 (p= 0.036). Therefore, low levels of serum iron and low levels of hemoglobin are associated with malarial infection. The researchers can also conclude that high levels of hemoglobin and borderline high and high levels of serum iron can be a risk factor for malarial infection.

Biography

Nehemiah Mula is currently a graduating students of the University of Santo Tomas taking up Bachelor of Science in Medical Technology.

Speaker
Nehemiah Mula / University of Santo Tomas, Philippines.

Abstract

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have had a special focus on the scientific community due to public health concerns, conservation of ecosystems, among others. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been known for more than seven decades and is responsible for severe infections in nosocomial environments. This study aimed to characterize phenotypically S. aureus of hospital origin isolated from cutaneous infections, blood, catheter and other exudates. The susceptibility of the isolates was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method against 15 antimicrobial agents and according to EUCAST (2018) standards with the exception of kanamycin that followed the CLSI guidelines (2017). Of the 41 S. aureus isolates, 23 MRSA were detected. All isolates showed resistance to at least 3 of the following antibiotics: penicillin (n=33), gentamicin (n=31), mupirocin (n = 30), cefotoxin (n=23), ciprofloxacin (n=9), fusidic acid (n=13), clindamycin (n=12), erythromycin (n=18), linezolid (n=9), tobramycin (n=9), kanamycin (n=8) and tetracycline (n=8). S. aureus resistance to methicillin has been increasing in Portugal. Due to the clinical significance of this type of resistance a rapid detection of MRSA is required followed by appropriate treatment in order to prevent the propagation of these organisms. Further studies should be conducted in order to investigate de resitance and virulence genes, and also, the genetic lineages of S. aureus should be characterized by agr-typing, spa-typing and MLST.

Biography

Vanessa Silva has a degree in Biochemistry from the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro. In 2016 she completed her Master’s degree in Biochemistry. Currently, Vanessa Silva is a PhD student in Veterinary Sciences (Biomedical Sciences area) at the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Portugal. She has published 3 papers in reputed journals, 2 book chapters and has presented 9 communications in scientific meetings.

Speaker
Vanessa Silva / University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal

Abstract

Previous studies demonstrated the ability of a Taenia hydatigena Vesicular Concentrate (ThVC) to induce protection against ovine hemoncosis. The aim of the study was to verify the capacity of the ThVC to module the expression of some cytokines in the abomasum of lambs with ThVC-induced protection. Four Groups (G) of lambs (n= 5) were treated: G1, controls lambs; G2, lambs infected with Haemonchus contortus; G3, lambs ThVC-inoculated and infected with H. contortus and G4, lambs ThVC-inoculated. The fecal egg count (FEC), the expression of the cytokines in fundic (FAR) and pyloric (PAR) abomasal regions and in abomasal lymph node (ALN) and, the amount of cytokines produced by LNA cell stimulated with H. contortus antigens, were determinated. Lambs of G3 had lower (p˂0.07) FEC´s than the lambs of G2. LNA cells from G2 lambs produced higher amounts of IL-2 and IL-4 than others groups. Lambs of G2 overexpressed IFNγ, IL-4 and IL-6 in the FAR and overexpressed IL-2, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6 in PAR. Lambs of G3 had overexpression of IL-10 in RFA and IL-8 in RPA while had lower expression of IFNγ in RFA and lower expression of IL- 2 in the RPA. These results showed that the administration of ThVC promotes the expression of some Th2 cytokines and the lower expression of the Th1 cytokine in the abomasal mucosa of the lambs, which is probably related to the observed protection. This work was supported by PAPIIT-UNAM IN-222316 and IN-218018 projects.

Biography

Fernando Alba-Hurtado pHD, is a veterinarian expert in parasitology and researcher leader. He is professor in the National Autonomus University of Mexico (UNAM) with 30 year of experience.

Speaker
Fernando Alba Hurtado / National Autonomus University of Mexico, Mexico

Abstract

Rhipicephalus microplus ticks are one of the most important blood-sucker ectoparasites in tropical and subtropical areas, leading to important economic losses to livestock production. Recently, control of these parasites has been complicated due to resistance emergence to commercial available acaricides. Consequently, two novel ethyl-carbamates (Ethyl-4-clorophenyl and Ethyl-4-bromophenyl carbamate), which affect egg morphology and decrease larvae hatching, have been designed and synthetized by our group. Therefore, our aim was to determine alterations generated by ethyl-carbamates during embryogenesis of R. microplus by quantifying the percentage of embryonated eggs and their development. Engorged females were exposed in vitro to three concentrations of each ethyl-carbamate; then layed eggs were collected and processed to measure the percentage of embryonated eggs and to analyze morphology by using fluorescence microscopy with DAPI dye test. In the untreated eggs, a complete embryonic development was observed until the larvae hatching (21 days). There was no embryo development in the 100% of eggs from engorged females treated with 0.587 mg/mL of ethyl-4- clorophenyl carbamate or 0.668 mg/mL of ethyl-4- bromophenyl carbamate. Lower concentrations showed no differences in morphology of embryonic development in comparison to negative control. In conclusion, these ethyl-carbamates affect negatively the development of R. microplus embryo at the higher concentration. This project was supported by PAPIIT-UNAM IN-222316 and IN-218018 projects.

Biography

Sandra L. Iturbe R. is a veterinarian and has a Master´s degree in animal health sciences from FESC-UNAM, in México. She has worked for 9 years in control of tick projects, and, is currently in her last year of the PhD.

Speaker
Sandra Lizeth Iturbe Requena Country / National Autonomous University of Mexico,Mexico

Abstract

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major opportunistic human pathogen which cause acute and chronic infections in fragile patients. It is a source of bacteraemia in burn victims, hospital-acquired pneumonia in patients on respirators and urinary-tract infections in catheterized patients. Due to its ability become resistant to antibiotics through mutational and transferable mechanisms, the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections is becoming more challenging. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa. The phenotypic resistance of P. aeruginosa isolates was studied using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method against 10 antimicrobial agents and according to EUCAST guidelines (2018). Twelve P. aeruginosa isolates were recovered. All isolates showed resistance to Imipenem, Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid and to Carbenicillin. All isolates showed resistance to at least 3 of the following antibiotics: ciprofloxacin (n=4), gentamicin (n=2), Ceftazidime (n=1), Meropenem (n=1), Tobramycin (n=2) and Aztreonam (n=2). Ten isolates showed Aztreonam-intermediate resistant. None of the isolates showed resistance to Amikacin. Imipenem is a potent cell wall synthesis inhibitor, and so, the resistance to Imipenem detected in all P. aeruginosa isolates is a concern. Therefore, further studies will be conducted regarding the detection of metallo-beta-lactamase by imipenem EDTA combined disk test since the emergence of metallo-beta-lactamase strains is one of the major cause of resistance to Imipenem.

Biography

Vanessa Silva has a degree in Biochemistry from the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro. In 2016 she completed her Master’s degree in Biochemistry. Currently, Vanessa Silva is a PhD student in Veterinary Sciences (Biomedical Sciences area) at the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Portugal. She has published 3 papers in reputed journals, 2 book chapters and has presented 9 communications in scientific meetings.

Speaker
Vanessa Silva / University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal

Abstract

Key words: STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS, NASAL COLONIZATION, PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN Introduction Staphylococcus aureus is one of the bacterium that can asymptomatically colonize the human upper respiratory tract (i.e. nose and throat). Carriage of S. aureus, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, is common to children. The aim at this study was to determine the nasal colonization, associated factors and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcus aureus isolates among pre-school children in Debre Markos town. Methods Institutional-based cross sectional study was conducted. A total of 400 nasal swabs were collected from pre-school children from April to June, 2015 following standard microbiological methods. MRSA was detected using both Cefoxitin (30μg) and Oxacillin (6 μg) (Oxoid Ltd. England) discs in combination and associated factors were assessed using self-administered pretested questionnaires, which were delivered to the children’s parents/guardians. Statistical analysis of the data (logistic regression) was done using SPSS V-22. Results A total of 52 Staphylococcus aureus isolate was recovered from 400 nasal swap samples. The prevalence of S. aureus among pre-School children was 13 % (52/400). The susceptibility patterns of the isolates to commonly used antibiotics were: 84.62% to Chloramphenicol, 69.2% to Doxycycline and Tetracycline, 92.3% to Kanamycin, 7.7% to Ampicillin and Penicillin, 86.6% to Ceftriaxone, and 76.9 % to Augmentin. All the isolates were sensitive to Oxacillin and Cefoxitin, mean there was no methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolate, and also sensitive to Gentamycin, Erythromycin and Clindamycin. The main associated factors of nasal colonization of S. aureus in the study area was, having recurrent acute otitis media [AOR= 2.37(1.11, 5.06)], Children admission in hospital [AOR=1.96(1.03, 3.73)] and cough [AOR=2.09(1.08, 4.09)]. Conclusions The prevalence of S. aureus nasal colonization among pre-school children was relatively low in absence of MRSA. Factors like; recurrent acute otitis media, hospital admission and cough were significantly associated with S. aureus nasal colonization. Most of the isolates were resistant to β-lactam drugs and sensitive to drugs like Gentamycin, Erythromycin, Clindamycin, Chloramphenicol, Doxycycline, Tetracycline, Kanamycin and Augmentin.

Biography

Alemayehu Reta was born on the 19th of June, 1989 in Gojjam, Ethiopia. My devotion to diagnose disease specifically and to understand the mechanism of disease at molecular level medical laboratory science was being selected by me as my specialization and graduated with great distinction with BSc degree (CGPA of 3.89)and awarded a gold medal. My first work was started at Debre Markos University as a Graduate assistant in 2010. After a year teaching experience, I start my MSc program in Medical Microbiology at Jimma University. I graduated (CGPA of 3.7)and return to my host University since 2013. I worked as a department head of Medical Laboratory Science for two years. Currently, I am doing as a reviewer in some of the international journals, advisor of both BSc and MSc students, researcher (laboratory-based research), lecturer and doing community service activities.

Speaker
Alemayehu Reta / Debre Markos University, Ethiopia

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