The fascinating light-matter interactions of two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures has recently become a focus of optical research due to a wide variety of applications from photovoltaics, photonics, valleytronics, optoelectronics to photodetectors. Under the irradiation of intense light, scientists have observed many novel nonlinear optical phenomena in 2D materials such as two-photon absorption, optical limiting (OL), second-harmonic generation, and saturable absorption (SA). As the first truly two-dimensional material, graphene is considered an ideal photonic material. Graphene shows ultrafast carrier relaxation dynamics and ultra-broadband resonant nonlinear optical response due to its extended pi-conjugate system and the linear dispersion relation arising from its electronic band structure. Wide-spectral SA has been experimentally demonstrated in many 2D nanonaterials with exceptional low saturation intensity and ultrafast recovery time of exited carriers. Hence these can be utilized as saturable absorbers for mode-locking or Q-switching to generate laser pulses with ultrashort duration and high repetition rate. This talk will review the SA properties of graphene, layered transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDs), Group-V elements and other 2D nanosheet materials by discussing their slow- or fast- SA behavior as well as reviewing the dependence of SA on excitation wavelength, linear absorption coefficient and pulse duration. The development of functional materials for laser protection though OL is also an extremely important area for the safety and security of users. Almost all types of graphene-based materials exhibit strong broadband OL response. The dominant limiting mechanism of graphene is nonlinear scattering, which is most effective in liquid suspensions. In contrast to the pure graphene, solubilized graphene derivatives optically limit through a nonlinear absorption mechanism, nonlinear scattering as well as photoinduced electron or energy transfer and/or energy transfer. This talk will systematically review physical mechanisms, 2D nanostructires and recent achievements in applications.
Prof Werner J Blau is Professor of Physics of Advanced Materials at Trinity College Dublin, as well as holding several; honorary professorships in China at SNIOM CAS, ECUST and Xi’an. For over two decades, his research has addressed the fundamental issue of structure-property relationships in polymeric and nano-materials and made unique and original contributions towards understanding and applications in optically-active nanostructures. He won the 2015 NANOSMAT PRIZE “for outstanding contributions in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology and for professional career achievements, in particular for your breakthrough and inspirational research in the field of molecular engineering of advanced materials and the investigation of basic materials, processes and devices for molecular nano-electronics and bio-nanotechnology.”
An abnormal strong radial magnetic field near the Galactic Center (GC) is detected . The lower limit of the radial magnetic field at r=0.12 pc from the GC is . Its Possible scientific significance are following: 1) The black hole model at the GC is incorrect. The reason is very simple as follows. the radiations observed from the region neighbor of the GC are hardly emitted by the gas of accretion disk which is prevented from approaching to the GC by the abnormally strong radial magnetic field. 2) This is an astronomical evidence for existence of magnetic monopoles . The lower limit of the detected radial magnetic field is quantitatively in agreement with the prediction of the paper “An AGN model with MM”. 3) Magnetic monopoles may play a key role in some very important astrophysical problems using the Robakov-Callen effect that nucleons may decay catalyzed by MM Taking the RC effect as an energy source, we have proposed an unified model for various supernova explosion , including to solve the question of the energy source both in the Earth core and in the white dwarfs. 4) We may explain the physical reason of the Hot Big Bang of the Universe with the similar mechanism of supernova explosion by using the RC effect as an energy source. 5) We shall point out that the problem on the increasing mass for the black hole model of quasars / AGN is an unavoidable difficult question. But no problem is for our AGN model with MM.
Qiu He Peng is mainly engaged in nuclear astrophysics, particle astrophysics and Galactic Astronomy research. In the field of Nuclear Astrophysics, his research project involved a neutron star (pulsar), the supernova explosion mechanism and the thermonuclear reaction inside the star, the synthesis of heavy elements and interstellar radioactive element such as the origin of celestial 26Al. In addition, through his lectures, he establishes Nuclear Astrophysics research in China. He was invited by Peking University, by Tsinghua University (both in Beijing and in Taiwan) and by nuclear physics institutes in Beijing, Shanghai, Lanzhou to give lectures on Nuclear Astrophysics for many times. He has participated in the international academic conferences over 40 times and he visited more than 20 countries. In 1994, he visited eight institutes in USA to give lectures. He is the first Chinese Astrophysicist to visit NASA and to give a lecture on the topic, “Nuclear Synthesis of Interstellar 26Al”. In 2005, he visited USA twice and gave lectures in eight universities again. Inviting six astronomers of USA to give series lectures, he has hosted four consecutive terms summer school on gravitational wave astronomy. After the four summer school obvious effect, at least 20 young scholars in China in the field of gravitational wave astronomy specialized learning and research. 220 research papers by him have been published
With size reduction, the differences in the electronic properties of materials and devices, for example, those caused by the structural nonuniformity in each element, have an ever increasing effect on macroscopic functions. For further advances in nanoscale science and technology, the development of a method for exploring the transient dynamics of local quantum functions in organized small structures is essential. Since the invention of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), the addition of high time-resolution to STM has been one of the most challenging issues . One of the successful approaches among them is to combine STM with optical pump-probe (OPP) techniques [2-6]. In ordinary laser pulses, some cycles are included, whose phase is called carrier envelope phase (CEP). The CEP is random and fluctuates in pulses, which is the reason why the pulse width limits the time resolution. Recently, new laser technologies have become applicable, where the CEP is same and locked in all pulses. Furthermore, the CEP can be controlled. Based on such technologies, a new microscopy technique, THz-STM, has been developed [7-9].The tip-enhanced THz monocycle pulses have enabled taking a snapshot of ultrafast dynamics. When CEP-controlled pulses with a single electric field are used for pump and probe pulses, dynamics controlled by the electric field in a CEP-controlled pump-pulse can be examined by a CEP-controlled probe pulse with sub-cycle time resolution.
HidemiShigekawa is Professor of Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Japan. He received a B.D., an M.D. and Ph.D. from the University of Tokyo. From 1987 to 1988 he worked at Bell labs. as a visiting researcher, using the synchrotron radiation beam linebuilt in National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, NY.From 2018, he has been the vice president of the Japan Society of Vacuum and Surface Science
Ti15Mo, a metastable beta titanium alloy, was subjected to severe plastic deformation (SPD) by high pressure torsion (HPT) and equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). A non-homogeneous and ultra-fine grained (UFG) material was achieved. In-situ electrical resistance measurements revealed significant differences in phase transformation sequence in the non-deformed and deformed material. The microstructure after deformation and subsequent heating was thoroughly investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). It was revealed that phase transformations are accelerated in the deformed material due to the high density of lattice defects. The microstructure observations showed that a slight difference in chemical composition can result in a heterogeneous precipitation of the alpha phase. Precipitation kinetics of the alpha phase in the UFG Ti15Mo alloy was observed during in-situ heating in scanning electron microscope
Milos Janecek has completed his PhD from Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic and postdoctoral studies from University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada and Clausthal University of technology, Clausthal, Germany. He is a full professor and the deputy head of the Department of Physics of materials at Charles University, Prague. He has published more than 200 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of Materials Engineering in Slovak Republic.
In recent years, magnesium (Mg) alloys are being suggested as biodegradable implant materials for clinical applications, because Mg is non-toxic, biocompatible and beneficial for bone growth and metabolic processes in the human body. The AZ (Mg-Al-Zn) series are is considered to be suitable as biodegradable material, having several advantages including: reduced aluminum content, microstructure refinement, low fatigue, corrosion resistance similar to other Mg alloys, not harmful to tissue and promoter of new bone cell formation. Assessing the corrosion rate of Mg-based materials is a critical issue and different alternative methods for testing in physiological media could be used, in order to provide more detailed characterization of the degradation process. This study present the evolution of AZ31 (3%Al-1%Zn) and AZ91 (9%Al-1%Zn) magnesium alloy surface activity during the initial stages of degradation in Ringer´s and Simulated Body Fluid (SFB) media, maintained at a body temperature of 37°C. The goal was to explore the capabilities for reliable corrosion rate determination using different multi-scale electrochemical techniques, as well hydrogen evolution measurement and Mg-ions release. The results were correlated with surface microscopic characterization.
Prof. Dr. Lucien Veleva is majored in Electrochemistry (Eng.) in Sofia, Bulgaria, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy. Her PhD is done in Institute of Physical Chemistry (Bulgaria) and after that was working as researcher in the “Institute for Protection of Metals from Corrosion” (Sofia, Bulgaria), as a head of National Laboratory for Testing of Corrosion. Since 1994 is Associated Professor at Applied Physics Department (Center for Investigation and Advanced Study - CINVESTAV, Mexico), teaching in Master/ Doctor Degrees programs, and also is adviser of thesis. In 2011 she received Doctor Honoris Causa; in 2012 - Francis La Que, Award ASTM G01, USA; in 2013 – NACE International Distingished Career Award, She has more than 200 articles in international journals, chapters in international books and 4 patents.
The sensor response has been reported to become highly nonlinear when the acceleration added to a thermal accelerator is very large. Asimilar response can be observed for two accelerations with different magnitudes and opposite signs. Some papers have reported the frequency response for horizontal acceleration as a first-order system, while others have reported it asa second-order system. The response for the vertical acceleration has not been studied yet. In this study, computational experiments were performed to examine the step and frequency responses of a three-axis thermal accelerometer. The results showed that monitoring the temperatures at two positions and using cross-axis sensitivity allows a unique acceleration to be determined, even when the range of the vertical acceleration is very large (e.g., −10,000g to 10,000g). The frequency response was proven to be a second-order system for the horizontal acceleration and a third-order system for the vertical acceleration. Further, the possibility of using this technique of measuring temperature at multiple positions to simultaneously obtain multiple physical quantities such as acceleration, angular velocity, and angular acceleration wasalso examined.
Prof/Dr. Yoshifumi Ogami received his Ph.D. from Kyoto University in 1989. He worked asa Research Assistant in Himeji Institute of Technology, Japan from 1988 to 1995.He was a visiting scientist in Institute of Theoretical Dynamics, University of California in Davis, U.S.A from 1991 to 1993. Since 2002, he has been a Professor in Ritsumeikan University, Japan. His research interests include developing code for three-dimensional panel method for moving and deforming objects in fluids and simulations of heat and mass transfer in continuous fluids and rarefied gas flows. Additionally, he is supervising many projects related to industry–university cooperation.
Water scarcity has been and still is a critical issue acknowledged in many countries across the globe due to the changing climatic conditions and water over-abstraction. For more than three decades, water in the EU countries has been protected under the EU water policy. Water security is at stake as many areas in Europe are grappling to get enough water for agriculture and industrial uses, due to the imbalance between water demand and water availability. The Blueprint to Safeguard Europe’s Water Resources, presented by the Commission in November 2012, reiterated the exigency to improve water resource management. The overexploitation of water resources, the inefficient usage and the over consumption of water create a strain between domestic and industrial needs. It is forecasted that the water shortage in crucial economic sectors such as agriculture, manufacturing, fisheries, livestock and even tourism will receive severe impacts if water scarcity persists. Efforts are underway to mitigate water deficiency and recently, recycle or reuse of wastewater in particular originating from sewage seems to be a feasible solution. However, there is a concern regarding the reuse of recovered wastewater as it raises the key question on the safe use of the recovered water. However, many of these are costly and incapable of removing the microbes. Wastewater contains primary pollutants encompassing organic matter, phosphorus, nitrogen, heavy metals, and endocrine disruptive compounds (EDCs) which negatively affect the environment and impact human health and animal well being. Another matter of grave concern are the residual pollutants and pathogenic microbes that might find its way into the soil and eventually the crops. Recovery of wastewater from the integrated wastewater treatment systems or other sources must rid of the pathogenic microbes as well as the primary pollutants before deemed safe for reuse. Treatment of wastewater for reuse include membrane filtration systems, nanotechnology, microbial fuel cells, natural treatment systems and others. There are various ways to treat wastewater to make it innocuous for human direct or indirect usage that include precipitation, evaporation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, membrane separation and so on. Most of these methods require high capital and operational costs for the treatment and disposal of the residual metal sludge. In other practices where water reclamation is desired, nanofiltration is applied as part of the advanced treatment phase in the wastewater treatment, to remove the primary pollutants prior to the physicochemical treatment that includes coagulation-flocculation which serves to remove colloidal particles.
Fatehah Mohd Omar is a Senior Lecturer at the School of Civil Engineering, UniversitiSains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia. She received her Ph.D. in Environmental Science from the University of Geneva, Switzerland in 2015 by studying the characterization, properties, behavior of ZnO nanoparticles in aqueous systems. Prior to that, she completed both her Bachelor and Masters degree in Environmental Technology, UniversitiSains Malaysia, in year 2004 and 2007 respectively. She is a member of the International Water Association (IWA) and Malaysia’s NGO Environmental Management and Research Association (ENSEARCH). She is also a member of the technical committee for international conferences such as Water Security Cluster : From Source to Supply 2016 and International Conference of Environmental Research Technology 2017 organized by UniversitiSains Malaysia. Fatehah is an active researcher on the characterization and behavior of nanosize pollutants generated from industries and alsonanopollutants in drinking water supply. Fatehah was recently awarded the L’Oréal-UNESCO for Women in Science Malaysian Fellowship 2016 in October 2016 for her research entitled, “Behavior and Fate of Nanosize Suspended Solids in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) in the Presence of Natural Biopolymers for the Optimization of Wastewater Treatment Processes”. She is a two time grant receiver from the International Foundation for Science (IFS) from Sweden for her research on the treatability process of new emerging pollutants (nanoparticles) in potable water supply and industrial wastewater process using natural bioflocculants and waste by-product coagulant. She is also engaged in community work on renewable energy via solar panels for the indigenous folk to reduce carbon emissions in remote rural areas in the central region of Malaysia. In April 2016, she represented USM and collaborated with the National Hydraulic Research Institute Malaysia (NAHRIM) at the 44th International Exhibition of Inventions of Geneva in Switzerland where they won several awards. She is also engaged with private companies i.e. Silterra Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. on the behavior of SiO2 nanoparticles in semiconductor wastewater treatment processes; and SCOMI group on wastewater treatment processes. In December 2014, she received a grant from the Swiss State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (SERI), Switzerland to hold a conference related to “Nanoparticles in the Environment” at UniversitiSains Malaysia, NibongTebal.
The paper reports the results of a research work for the development of a newfast curing and high performance and environmentally friendly road surface coursecold bitumen emulsion mixture for heavily trafficked roads. This aim has been achieved by reducing the long curing time of cold bituminous emulsion mixtures (CBEMs) by replacing conventional limestone filler (LF) with a new secondary cementitious filler containing ‘nano’ particles madeprimarily from waste sewage sludge fly ash (SSFA). The SSFA produced from incinerated waste water sludge collected from water treatment plants. The new alkali ternary blended filler, comprises ordinary Portland cement (OPC), a high volume of waste sewage sludge fly ash and calcium carbide residue. A waste calcium hydroxide solution was used as a replacement for the aggregate pre-wetting water in the CBEM. Calcium carbide residue played a vital role in activating the SSFA by breaking the glassy phases of the non-amorphous silica in the SSFA, while the waste calcium hydroxide solution increased the hydraulic reactivity of the cementitious components. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to investigate the development of hydration products in the new CBEM. The mechanical properties of the novel CBEM incorporating both the ordinary bitumen emulsion and the new cementations materials filler, were investigated in terms of indirect tensile stiffness modulus (ITSM),rutting and fatigue resistancesat different curing times. The new road pavement mixture offers a substantial improvement in stiffness modulus, compared to hot mix asphalt (HMA) and CBEM containing conventional emulsion and LF. The ITSM for the newly developed CBEM at 3 days of age, increased by approximately 19 times that of the conventional cold mixture, and almost 2.5 times that of traditional 100/150 HMA. The new mixture also displayed considerably higher resistance to permanent deformation in comparison to the reference cold and hot asphalt mixtures, demonstrating its potential for use in heavily trafficked road pavements. Resistance to deformation and fatigue were significantly enhanced as the new cementations materials and the emulsion help forming a cohesive mixture working in parallel with the hydration products which resulted from the hydration process of the cementitious filler in the presence of water within the bitumen-water solution.
Professor Hassan Al Nageim is a Professor of Structural Engineering. His; BSc (Hons) in Civil Engineering from University of Baghdad, MSc in Structural Engineering University College Cardiff, UK and PhD in Civil and Structural Engineering from Heriot-Watt University, UK. In 1977-1979, he has established the new Technology Department at Babylon (Hilla) Technical Institutions, Iraq and worked as a Head of Department. 1983 -1985, he worked as a consultant structural engineer at the Kuwait National Petroleum Company representing the British Inspection X-Ray company. 1989-Date, he worked as a Senior Lecturer, Reader (Associate Professor) in Structural Engineering and in 2003-to date promoted to full Professor in Structural Engineering at Liverpool John Moores University, UK. With main roles of taking the lead of Advanced Structural Design and Pavement Engineering subject area, including design and analysis of steel structures, bridges, concrete structures, pavement engineering: design, evaluation and materials developments. Professor Al Nageim is a regular speaker and keynote speakers at different national and international conferences and a consultant to many companies worldwide in the field of structural design and materials innovations and developments. He has published more than 140 scientific conference and journal papers and two books entitled: Structural Mechanics published by Pearson Education; Steel Structures: Practical Studies published by Taylor and Francis. Professor Hassan main research interest’s area is in structural & pavement engineering design and evaluations including innovations in materials technology. Professor Al Nageim is also: A Chartered Engineer and a member of the British Engineering Council, the Founder and Chief Editor of the International Journal of Pavement Engineering & Asphalt Technology, established in 2001, ISSN 1464-8164, the Founder and Chairman of the international annual conference on Pavement Engineering, Asphalt Technology, Sustainable Materials, and Infrastructures, A Fellow of the British Institution of Non-Destructive Testing, UK and a Fellow of the Chartered Institution of Highways and Transportation UK. Professor Al Nageim also supervised over 16 successful UK PhD students as a director of studies and external examiners for more than 25 successful PhD students from the University of: Anna University, India,Visvesvaraya Technological University, India, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Italia, University of; Nottingham, Greenwich, Portsmouth, Coventry, Salford, Liverpool and Ulster of the UK and University College Dublin. Adjunct Dean to the Gahan Polytechnic and of external examiners and advisor for two academic degree courses in Wolverhampton University and the University of Ulster of the UK. Professor Al Nageim has also extensive experience in managing and development of undergraduate and postgraduate courses in; civil engineering, building maintenance management and building surveying at Liverpool John Moores University, UK. Professors Al Nageim also playing a major roles as a member of the strategic planning educational and council memberships committees for two Engineering and Materials Institutions in the UK.
Metal colloidal particles have attracted much attention from the point of view of both fundamental research and applications due to their interesting optical and electrical properties. One of the promising applications of the metal colloidal particles is surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates for the analysis of small amounts of chemical and biological agents. The local electromagnetic field enhancement induced by the excitation of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the metal colloidal particles is a major mechanism of the SERS. The LSPR properties are strongly dependent on the type, size and shape of the metal colloidal particles. Among metals, silver (Ag) and gold (Au) colloidal particles show predominant LSPR properties. The size and shape of deposited metal colloidal particles on the substrates are affected by the surface morphology of the substrates. As the substrates, the artificial ones such as glasses, plastics and ceramics are widely used. We have prepared densely stacked Ag colloidal particles with diameters of 100-250 nm deposited on various types of substrates. The substrates used were the glass slides with smooth surface, metal foils with heat scratches and insect wings with nanopillar array structures. The SERS properties of the Ag colloidal particles deposited on various types of substrates were compared with those of Ag thin films sputtered on glass slides. The SERS signal intensities of Rhodamine 6G dripped and dried on the Ag colloidal particles deposited on various types of substrates were more than 10 times larger than that on the standard Ag thin films.
Dr. Ichiro Tanahashi has been a Professor in materials science at Osaka Institute of Technology (OIT), Japan since 2004. He received Ph.D. in Engineering from Osaka Prefecture University in 1992 and he got a licence of Professional Engineer, Japan in 2000. He worked as a researcher at Central Research Laboratories of Panasonic Corporation (formerly Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.), Japan from 1981 to 2001. He has been working at OIT since 2001. His research interests include developing nanomaterials (colloidal metal particles), biomimetic materials and hight performance electric double-layer capacitors. He has published more than 80 papers and 310 patents.
Organic memory device constitutes an essential component for data processing, storage and communication in realizing all-organic electronic devices. Among various types of memory devices, transistor-based memory device is attractive for the structural integration. The memory effect can be achieved in a transistor by inserting a charge-trapping floating gate between the semiconductor and the gate dielectric to give the electric bistability needed in the memory function. We have assessed carrier traps based on metal nanoparticles, covered with various self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as floating gate in fabricating a transistor memory device. The performance characteristics such as width of memory window, switching response time, memory retention time are dependent on the structure of the SAM used in modifying the charge trapping moieties, which allow some room for rational design. In this work, we report the use of functional SAMs containing two chromophore units, one electron-rich and one electron-poor, flanked between long alkyl chains to be the charge trapping site in the fabrication of a transistor-based memory device. In contrast with monolayers containing either chromophore of the two, the bi-functional monolayer-containing devices exhibited expanded memory window and improved retention time. Multiple current states can be obtained by applying various gate bias to charge up the monolayer to different extents. This hybrid organic monolayer/inorganic dielectric device also exhibited rather stable device characteristics upon bending of the substrate. The simple and low temperature processing procedures of the key elements (self-assembled monolayer) could be integrated with large area flexible electronics applications
Yu-Tai Tao completed his PhD degree from University of Rochester, USA in 1981 and postdoctoral studies from Harvard University, USA in 1984. He started his career in teh Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taiwan as Associate Research Fellow (1984-1990), and became a Research Fellow since 1990. His research interests include Surface chemistry, materials chemistry, self-assembled monolayers, organic molecular electronic materials and devices, including organic light-emitting diodes, organic field-effect transistors, organic memories. He has published more than 150 papers.
Nanogravimetric sensors enable the detection of small amounts of target materials by detecting changes in mass at their surface. To do so, they must be modified with highly selective materials that preferentially bind to the material of interest while limiting interactions with likely contaminants present in the medium they seek to interrogate. We report on the work we have done to develop a nonagravimetric sensors for (i) ground water monitoring on Nuclear Licensed Sites and (ii) medical diagnosis. Technetium-99, a beta emitter, is the most significant long-lived (half life: 211,00yrs) radioisotope produced by the fission of uranium and an important by-product of the nuclear fuel cycle. It is most commonly encountered as the pertechnetate ion (TcO4-) which is highly soluble and mobile in groundwater systems. Its monitoring is a statutory requirement for a number of nuclear license sites. Its high environmental mobility also make it relevant in terms of contamination detection as Tc-99 will often be the first contaminant to be present in detectable levels. Technetium-specific ligands have been developped and imobilised on the surface of nanogravimetric sensors. Similar methods present opportunities for this class of sensors to be developed for a range of applications including medical diagnosis by targetting biomarkers of specific diseases. Here we report on efforts to produce such a sensor targetting breath-borne volatile organic compounds known to be present in the expired breath of lung cancer patients.
Dr Fabrice Andrieux BSc, PhD (Electochemistry), MRSC is a Lecturer in Nuclear and Chemical Engineering at the Department of Engineering, Lancaster University. His primary research interest in the development of electrochemical and gravimetry sensors for industrial and medical diagnostic applications, to enable rapid decision making. He is the author of 20 peer reviewed articles and an edited book chapter.
Due to the large specific surface area, ultrathin graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (g-C3N4-NS) as suitable supporter was decorated with platinum nanoflowers (Pt NFs) using a simple layer-by-layer drop-casting and electrochemical deposition method to modification of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for voltammetric detection of H2O2. First, the bulk g-C3N4 was prepared by direct pyrolysis of melamine in the semiclosed system, then the ultrathin g-C3N4 nanosheets were obtained via a liquid exfloliating approach and successfully utilized to drop-casting of a GCE. After Pt NFs electrodeposition, the structure and morphology of the as-fabricated non-enzymatic biosensor electrode was determined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical behaviors of the nano-hybrid electrode was assessed using chronoamperometry (CA), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis. The as-prepared Pt NFs/g-C3N4 shows an extraordinary performance in quantifying H2O2 in a wide range of concentration from 0.12 to 97.15 μM with the detection limit of 0.08 μM using DPV. The present sensor was also successfully used for the determination of H2O2 in the presence of common interference compounds and finally used in the determination of H2O2 in human blood serum as real sample.
Hamed Tavakkoli received his M.Sc. degree in analytical chemistry as superior graduate student from University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran in 2009. He has completed hisPhD in analytical chemistry from Shiraz University, Iran, 2019. He is a member of Iranian Chemical andElectrochemical Societies.His current research interests include synthesis of nanostructures and bioanalysis as well as constructing nanosensors and biosensors.
Molecules are considered the minimum functional components in chemistry, biology and materials science. One of the representative functionalities of a molecule is its molecular recognition and assembling ability to form functional structures. We endeavor to use this functionality to modify the character of inorganic electronic materials and devices. This presentation will detail the results of our recent investigations into molecular interaction and assembly on 2D semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs).1-5 TMDCs have a structure of atomically thin layers (each layer with a thickness of ~0.7 nm) stacked with van der Waals interaction to form a bulk. Because of the semiconductive properties, they are expected to create atomically thin optoelectronic devices. However, due to the thinness of each layer, conventional carrier injection methods such as ion implantation are not appropriate, which would destroy the thin layered structure. To modulate the carrier concentration of semiconductive TMDCs, we developed a surface-charge transfer doping method using a donor molecule, benzyl viologen (BV), to just barely make contact on the TMDC to convert the electronic structure from semiconducting to metallic.1,2 As a demonstration, we realized a field-effect transistor with a theoretical limit of subthreshold swing of less than 80 mV/dec. To use TMDCs to create optoelectronic devices, the carrier modulation at the nanometer scale is critical. Recently, we developed a method to achieve a pattern formation of the BV molecules on TMDCs. The progress made in this research is the finding that the pattern formation can be exhibited spontaneously, meaning that the system can be tuned with minimal energy. The spontaneous pattern formation tunes the carrier concentration of the TMDC materials and devices, which would be useful in preparing many p/n junctions, a core device component in electronics, simultaneously and spontaneously.3 One TMDC, monolayer MoS2, is expected to be used in making atomically thin optoelectronic devices due to its direct band gap nature. However, critical to the success of such an application is improving MoS2’s low quantum yield (QY) (less than 1%). We found that a molecular acid treatment of bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (TFSI) converts the QY of MoS2 to near unity (~95%).4 The photoluminescence intensity improved over 200 times by the molecular treatment. Recently, we found that this improvement originates from the defect-inactivation by the molecular treatment, and that the factor of the inactivation is determined by the protonation environment.5 In the presentation, the details of the above research will be discussed. Keywords: Molecular interaction, Supramolecular chemistry, 2D materials, Transition metal dichalcogenides
Metamaterials are a new class of artificial materials possessing exotic electromagnetic responses that are inaccessible with natural materials. Research of metamaterials provides novel opportunities to manipulate an electromagnetic wave with artificial structures. To experimentally demonstrate metamaterials operating in the optical region, nanofabrication technology is neccesary because optical metamaterials are composed of sub-wavelength structures. In this presntation, I will introduce our recent results on optical metamaterails fabricated by using nanofabrication techniques.
Yuto Moritake received the M. S. and Dr. Eng. Degrees from Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan, in 2013 and 2016, respectively. From 2014 to 2016, he was a Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. From 2016 to 2017, he was a Postdoctoral Researcher of the Innovative Photon Manipulation Team (conducted by Prof. Takuo Tanaka) in RIKEN, Japan. From 2017, he is assistant Professor in Tokyo Institute of Technology. He is currently engaged in research and development of nanophotonics, metamaterials, plasmonics, and nanofabrication.
Semiconducting nanowires have been recognized as promising materials for high-performance electronics and optics where optical and electrical properties can be tuned individually, where the nanowires due to excellent light absorbing properties  have been suggested for future high efficiency solar cells [2, 3]. Especially, the geometrical shape of the NWs offers excellent light absorption. In order to further optimize the performance of nanowire photovoltaics, and integrate them on Si in a tandem junction configuration, nanowires with dimensions corresponding to optimal light harvesting capability are necessary. We developed nano imprint lithography for patterning of catalytic metal particles with a diameter of 200 nm in a hexagonal pitch of 500 nm, for which synthesis was re-developed since the metal particles were found to move during annealing, destroying pattern fidelity before nucleation. We found that a pre anneal and nucleation step was necessary to keep the particles in place during high temperature annealing to remove surface oxides. We intend to transfer these grown nanowires to a Si platform (existing PV), either by direct growth on Si PV, or by nanowire peel off in polymer, followed by transfer and electrical contacting, or by aerotaxy and alignment for transfer to Si. The optimal band gap in combination with Si is about 1.7 eV, where we identify GaInP and GaAsP as materials for development of nanowire pn junctions by doping, the heart in a solar cell.
Magnus T. Borgström is Professor in Solid state Physics at the Lund University. He was born in Perstorp, Sweden, in 1974. He received the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in physics from Lund University, Lund, Sweden, in 1999 and 2003, respectively. After the PhD degree in 2003 he was a Postdoctor at ETH-Zurich, Switzerland, for one year where he was engaged in working on optical properties of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) before joining Philips Research, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, in 2005, as Marie Curie Postdoctoral Fellow, where he was engaged in working on epitaxial growth and characterization of semiconductor NWs.Since 2016, he is full professor being involved in semiconductor epitaxy, with the current main focus on NW growth and electro-optical studies of materials with promise for energy saving and harvesting applications. He is currently the coordinator of the NanoEnergy part of NanoLund, and the deputy coordinator of the EU-project NanoTandem.
Graphene (monolayer and few layers) is a two-dimensional material with the large anisotropy between in-plane and out-of-plane directions. Few-layer graphene can be synthesized by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) techniques on heated substrates employing methane/hydrogen mixtures. For example, graphene formation can be realized by low-pressure PECVD on Cu and Ni substrate in the remote plasma configuration. However, excess flux of carbon precursors causes supersaturation and ion bombardment induces the defects. In this work, microwave-excited atmospheric pressure plasma was applied to the synthesis of few-layer graphene on Cu substrate. The effect of ion bombardment on the growing surface can be removed due to the high-pressure operation. The microwave (2.45 GHz) propagates from the top of the deposition chamber to the micro-gap (0.2 mm) electrode, and slit-shaped plasma is produced. The distance between the micro-gap electrode and Cu substrate is 5 mm. Growth experiments were carried out for 30 to 300 sec on heated (~700˚C) substrate employing He/H2/CH4 mixture at atmospheric pressure. Raman spectrum of graphene-based film formed for 300 sec was almost identical to that of the film formed for 30 sec, indicating that the number of graphene layers did not increase in spite of the increase of formation period. Despite the localized plasma shape, graphene was formed uniformly on the whole substrate (5 cm diameter in the present case). Results indicated that the self-limiting growth of graphene could be attained on the Cu substrate by supplying long-lived hydrocarbon radicals without ion bombardment using atmospheric pressure plasma.Graphene (monolayer and few layers) is a two-dimensional material with the large anisotropy between in-plane and out-of-plane directions. Few-layer graphene can be synthesized by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) techniques on heated substrates employing methane/hydrogen mixtures. For example, graphene formation can be realized by low-pressure PECVD on Cu and Ni substrate in the remote plasma configuration. However, excess flux of carbon precursors causes supersaturation and ion bombardment induces the defects. In this work, microwave-excited atmospheric pressure plasma was applied to the synthesis of few-layer graphene on Cu substrate. The effect of ion bombardment on the growing surface can be removed due to the high-pressure operation. The microwave (2.45 GHz) propagates from the top of the deposition chamber to the micro-gap (0.2 mm) electrode, and slit-shaped plasma is produced. The distance between the micro-gap electrode and Cu substrate is 5 mm. Growth experiments were carried out for 30 to 300 sec on heated (~700˚C) substrate employing He/H2/CH4 mixture at atmospheric pressure. Raman spectrum of graphene-based film formed for 300 sec was almost identical to that of the film formed for 30 sec, indicating that the number of graphene layers did not increase in spite of the increase of formation period. Despite the localized plasma shape, graphene was formed uniformly on the whole substrate (5 cm diameter in the present case). Results indicated that the self-limiting growth of graphene could be attained on the Cu substrate by supplying long-lived hydrocarbon radicals without ion bombardment using atmospheric pressure plasma.
Dr. Mineo Hiramatsu is a Full Professor of Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering and the Director of Research Institute, Meijo University, Japan. His main fields of research are plasma diagnostics and plasma processing for the synthesis of thin films and nanostructured materials. He served as chairman and member of organizing and scientific committees of international conferences on plasma chemistry and plasma processing. He was awarded the Japan Society of Applied Physics Fellow in 2017.
Plasma-enhanced reactive processes including the reactive plasma sputter-deposition and the post-plasma-treatment processes have been developed via installation with inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) sustained with low-inductance antenna (LIA) for fabrication of next-generation devices including flexible electronics, which require large-area and low-damage processes at low substrate temperature. The reactive plasma processes have been applied to film formation of transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor InGaZnOx (IGZO), which has attracted great attentions as key material for next-generation flexible electronics. In the conventional processes for IGZO thin-film transistor (TFT) formation, the field effect mobility was limited to as high as 10-20 cm2/Vs for IGZO with elemental composition of In:Ga:Zn ~ 1:1:1 and post annealing at elevated temperatures as high as 400 deg.C was required because the electrical properties of the as-deposited IGZO TFTs are extremely sensitive to oxidization process during film deposition process. Thus the conventional fabrication process of the IGZO TFTs has been constrained to the device formation on glass substrates. With the advanced reactivity-controlled sputter-deposition andthe post-plasma-treatment processes in this study, IGZO TFTs with mobility as high as 40 cm2/Vs has been successfully formed at substrate temperature as low as or less than 250 deg C. In this presentation, process controllability of ICP-enhanced reactive sputter deposition and low-temperature formation of high-mobility IGZO TFTs are discussed.
Yuichi Setsuhara is Professor and Vice Director of Joining and Welding Research Institute (JWRI), Osaka University. He joined Welding Research Institute, Osaka University as Research Associate in 1991, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University as Associate Professor in 2001, and has been a Professor in Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University since 2004. He is currently a Vice Director of Joining and Welding Research Institute (JWRI), Osaka University since 2014. He has published more than 150 papers in SCI journals and has been serving as board members of several committees such as International Scientific Committee for International Conference on Plasma Surface Engineering and International Advisory Board for the journal “Plasma Processes and Polymers”.
Hydrogen, as an eco-friendly energy resource with the highest energy density, has attracted lots of attention due to the current environmental and energy crisis, while its efficient production has been the bottle neck of the application of hydrogen. Electrochemical water splitting can potentially be the answer for industrialized hydrogen production. The electrode design and micro-nano structure fabrication are always the key to lower the reaction overpotential and increase the energy efficiency. Our group has developed and advanced constructing unique cations moiety1, doping2, single atom loading3, intercalating, introducing defects and strain4 in layered double hydroxides-based materials for oxygen evolution and water splitting. Furthermore, constructing nanoarray structure (superaerophobic for gas evolution reaction) would also be beneficial for boosting catalytic efficiency by exposing more edge/unsaturated active sites and managing the bubbles behavior.5-6 Combining the merits of high intrinsic activity with optimized nanoarray structure and well surface passivation, our self-assembly water splitting device shows superb hydrogen production efficiency and stability compared with commercial devices for alkali water splitting or sea-water splitting. Our strategies involve both investigating microcosmic structure-activity relationship and macroscopic bubbles behavior, and shall open a new door for the development of water-splitting technologies and energy conversion. Keywords: water splitting, device, layered double hydroxides, bubble behaviors, nanoarray
Professor Xiaoming Sun gained his B.S. degree and Ph.D. in Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University in 2000 and 2005, respectively. After postdoctoral work at Stanford University, he joined State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology at 2008. His main research interest is separation and assembly of inorganic nanostructures to functional nanomaterials. His recent work focuses on superwetting properties of nanoarray electrodes for gas-involved electrocatalysis. Professor Xiaoming Sun has published 125 journal articles (eg. Nat. Commun., J. Am. Chem. Soc., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., Adv. Mater., Acc. Chem. Res.) as corresponding author. These publications have been cited for >10000 times. The H-index of his publications is 46 per SCI data base
In order to investigate local electronic structures in nano-materials/devices, we have developed soft X-ray photoelectron nano-spectroscopy with 70 nm spatial resolution at SPring-8, where the sample holder is connected to a semiconductor parameter analyzer to facilitate operando pin- point analysis during device operation. Among several FETs, the first example is a graphene FET where we discovered the linear band dispersion in graphene FET by operando nano- spectroscopy, indicating the direct observation of p-type doping feature under back gate biasing. The second FET is a MoS 2 nanolayer FET which did not exhibit as good performance as expected. We have performed pin-point analysis to investigate the local electronic structure at interfaces in a MoS 2 FET, and observed a charge-transfer region (CTR) at the MoS 2 /metal- electrode interface. The third FET is an organic semiconductor FET (OFET) for light weight, flexible electronics with low cost. Operando measurements of line profiles of C 1s kinetic energy across the OFET channel composed by ultrathin single-crystalline C10-DNBDT-NW films suggest that drain current proportional to hole concentration in the channel generated by the back gate biasing is well correlated by the simple Boltzmann distribution. Finally, the forth FET is a 4H-SiC trench MOSFET. We conducted pin-point analysis of RIE (reactive ion etching)-processed trench sidewall, because chemical and electronic structures of the sidewall which is the MOS channel plane directly affect the FET performance. Nano-spectroscopy revealed local chemical structure and band bending features caused by RIE damages. Future prospects of brighter synchrotron radiation nano-spectroscopy for other FETs will be discussed.
Masaharu Oshima, Professor Emeritus of University of Tokyo (UTokyo) is now a project researcher at Institute for Solid State Physics, UTokyo, and a distinguished professor at Tokyo City University. He graduated from Dpt. of Industrial Chemistry, UTokyo in 1972, and received his Doctor of Engineering degree from UTokyo in 1984. He has been engaged in synchrotron radiation research for semiconductors, and nanotechnology for more than 37 years. He became a professor at Dpt. of Applied Chemistry, UTokyo in 1995. He was the Presidents of the Japanese Society for Synchrotron Radiation Research, and the Surface Science Society of Japan. He has published more than 610 papers in international refereed journals. He received ECS Best Paper Award and Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Award etc.
Nanoparticles have been used successfully in many areas of chemistry including analytical applications There are many materials that can be used to make nanoparticles for a wide variety of applications. Silica nanoparticles have several advantages when compared to other nanoparticles. Their morphology, composition and chemical compositions are easily controllable. Due to their straightforward synthesis a wide variety of additional chemicals can be introduced into these particles either non-covalently or covalently. These additives can be used as reporting or analytical reagents opening up the preparation of virtual analytical nanolabs in the silica nanoparticles. The analytical reagents determined by the analytical task the silica nanoparticles are used for. While it is a simple process to saturate porous silica nanoparticles with analytical reagents using the non-covalent approach; however these tend to leach during use. Much more reliable method is using covalent approach using any of the well established methods for silica nanoparticle synthesis. During this process in addition to TEOS a wide range of modified TEOS analogs can be used. Following this process virtually any new property or reactive group can be introduced in the silica nanoparticles. Silica nanoparticles containing modified TEOS analogs molecules can be utilized as fluorescence sensors for pH measurements (–COOH or -HN2 substituted TEOS), metal ion sensors (-COOH with -OH), etc. In addition re-growth technique can be utilized for surface modification and introducing surface bound moieties. This presentation discusses applications of these silica nanoparticles in different analytical techniques, including forensic and bioanalytical applications. In forensic applications they can be used as fluorescent dusting powder for latent fingerprint visualization. Modulated surface hydrophobicity is important in forensic utility of these nanoparticles. CE applications will be presented to illustrate the bioanalytical usefulness of co-polymerized silica nanoparticles. They are also useful as bright fluorescent labels and for biomolecule characterization utilizing their specific surface binding characteristics
Gabor Patonay is Professor of Analytical Chemistry at Department of Chemistry, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA. He obtained his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the Technical University of Budapest, Hungary. In 1982 he left Hungary and became a Postdoctoral Associate in Professor Isiah Warner’s group in the Department of Chemistry at Emory University specializing in fluorescence spectroscopy, separations and instrument development. He joined the faculty of Georgia State University (GSU) in 1987, where he is currently Professor and Analytical Division Head. Dr. Patonay’s research interests at GSU include many analytical and environmental chemistry areas, specifically NIR fluorescence related research developing new bioanalytical and biomedical applications using NIR probes and labels; biomolecule separations using HPLC and CE; development of presumptive forensic analytical techniques and use of nanotechnology in bioanalytical chemistry. Dr. Patonay published over 200 papers and presented over 250 conference presentations. He is the Editor-In-Chief of Analytical Chemistry Insights.
This presentation reviews the recent progress in nano-focus X-ray CT characterization of particle breakage behavior of sands and mathematical modeling of 3D morphology of sand particles. The novelty of the study stems from the pioneering application of the state-of-the-art synchrotron CT technology and mathematical methods to the exploration of the fracture behavior of sand particles at the micron and sub-micron scales, the accurate reconstruction and reassembling of 3D sand particle morphology, the assessment of the effects of particle microstructure and micromorphology on the fracture behavior. The presentation first introduces the nano-focus X-ray CT technique and describes its application to the exploration of particle breakage behavior in typical element soil tests, e.g., single particle crushing test, oedometer test and triaxial test. Typical results from the CT study are presented. Then the spherical harmonic analysis (SHA) method, the image matching techniques and their application to the reconstruction and reassembling of 3D sand particle morphology are presented and discussed.
Dr. Wang received his BSc and MSc degrees from Tongji University, China and his PhD degree from Virginia Tech, USA. He is currently an associate professor in the Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering at City University of Hong Kong. Dr. Wang's work has been awarded the prestigious international prizes including 2011 Geotechnical Research Medal (UK Institution of Civil Engineers) and 2010 Higher Education Institutions Outstanding Research Award - Natural Science Award (the Ministry of Education of China). Dr. Wang has authored and co-authored over 120 peer-reviewed publications including 60 SCI journal papers and over 60 international conference papers.
RIKEN Accelerator-driven compact neutron source, RANS, has been operated since 2013. There are two major goals of RANS research and development. One is to establish a new compact low energy neutron system of floor-standing type for industrial use. Another goal is to invent a novel transportable compact neutron system for the preventive maintenance of large scale construction such as a bridge. The low energy transmission imaging, neutron diffractometer, small angle scattering instruments, fast neutron transmission imaging, fast neutron reflected (back scattered) imaging, neutron induced prompt gamma-ray analysis for elemental analysis and neutron activation analysis are available with RANS. Based on the success of RANS, we have developed more compact neutron system for popular use of neutron beam at any institutes, or universities, or industries with the name of RANS-II. It is now ready to generate neutrons in the RANS experimental hall with individual shielding system. The novel proton accelerator tube and 500 MHz solid state high-frequency amplifier for RANS-III, of a transportable neutron system as a non-destructive test for the infrastructures on-site, is started be developed in RIKEN. Such compact neutron systems enable material science
Dr. Yoshie OTAKE has been graduated from Institute of Science and Engineering, Waseda University: Doctor of Science in Elementary Particle Theoretical Physics. Later on she obtained her associate professor position at Ibaraki National College of Technology, and Research Fellow at Elementary particle experimental group in Kyoto University, became Visiting Scientist at Institute of Laue-Langevin, Grenoble France (Search for neutron EDM with crystal technology) in 1995, became research scientist of RIKEN in 1996. Presently she has been working at RIKEN for compact neutron systems development as a team leader of Neutron beam technology team in RIKEN center for advanced Photonics.
Two-dimensional layered crystal based surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS) has been a research hotspot in the realm of chemistry and biology. For example, patterned graphene used as SERS substrates achieved a record of ultrasentive detection of molecules to 10-14M. In this talk, I will firstly give a brief review of the progress of SERS based on 2D layered crystals. Then, the recent research results of my group’s work on the ultrahigh-sensitivity detection of molecules by SERS with hybrid structures of GaTe 2D layered crystals will be presented. We self-assembled Au nanoparticles/GaTe/Au hybrid substrates with superior detection capability comparable to the graphene-base SERS for aromatic molecules and the lowest fabrication cost. The limiting concentration for R6G molecule detection with our GaTe-based nanostructures is 10-14M, which is of the same order of the best result achieved from the patterned graphene substrates. The unique feature of defects’ in GaTe here becomes a merit rather than a shortcoming in other realms. The high-density of defects in GaTe films is utilized for a facile decoration of Au nanoparticles (NPs), which allowed us to extend its application potential to the domain of SERS. The developed GaTe-related SERS substrates may pave a new route towards the ultrasensitive detection of molecules.
Huizhen Wu has completed his PhD from the University of Manchester Institute of Sicence and Technology (UMIST) , UK and postdoctoral studies from University of Oklahoma, USA. He is a professor of Zhejiang University and the director of Institute of Applied Physics. He has published more than 150 papers in reputed journals and total citations over 3000 and has been serving as an editorial board member of a reputed journal.
Electrochemical double layer capacitors or Supercapacitors are energy storage devices of the new era. In this study, we investigated a correlation between the self-diffusion of electrolyte in the nano-pores of carbon and their corresponding capacitive performance. In the first set of experiments we studied the dynamics of a single RTIL confined in carbon mesopores with different pore sizes. The RTIL 1- ethyl-3- methylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Etmpy-NTf2) which was confined in 2nm, 4nm and 6nm carbon pores for the study. In the second set of study, three different ionic liquids were chosen with varying molecular size and are confined in a single pore sized (2nm) carbon material. The RTILs used were 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (HMIM-NTf2), 1-butyl-2,3- dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BDiMIM-NTf2), 1-ethyl-2,3- dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (EDiMIM-NTf2) and the preffered pore size of carbon electrode material used was 2 nm. The RTILs differ by increasing alkyl chain length of the methylated imidazolium ring in cations where HMIM-NTf2 has the largest and EDiMIM-NTf2 has the smallest molecular chain length. The self diffusion rate of all the above RTILs was found to be faster in the carbon pores as compared to their respective bulk diffusion constants. The comparison of the diffusion constant deduced from the QENS data makes evident that the diffusion of Etmpy NTf2 systematically decreases with increase in pore size of carbon. In the case of HMIM-NTf2, BDiMIM-NTf2 and EDiMIMNTf2 the diffusion of these RTILs in 2nm carbon pores were found to be decreasing with increasing molecular chain length. The galvanostatic charge-discharge measurement of supercapcitors show that, faster the self diffusion of the RTIL in the carbon pore, the longer its charging/discharging time owing to a larger capacitance value. We have studied the self diffusion and capacitive performance of the above capacitors in various temperatures. Our results indicate that the faster the ions diffuse, the more ions accumulate on the surface of the electrodes having an opposite charge leading to a higher capacitance. The present study shows a profound influence of the dynamics of electrolytes in the capacitive performance, which will aid the design of new generation supercapacitors with improved efficiencies.
Dr. Suresh M. Chathoth has obtained his Ph.D. in Physics from the Technological University of Munich, Germany in 2005. He has done postdoctoral research at the University of Gottingen, Germany and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA. Presently he is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Physics, City University of Hong Kong. He has published more than 40 research papers in reputed international journals. His research interest includes Metallic glass-formation, glass-forming ability, and energy storage systems.
Prof. Bin CHEN received his BS, MS and Ph. D degrees in Power Engineering and Engineering Thermal Physics from Xi'an Jiaotong University in 1993, 1996 and 2002, respectively. He then worked as lecturer, associate and full professor at Xi'an Jiaotong University. From 2002 to 2004, he worked in National Maritime Research Institute of Japan as JSPS Postdoc Fellowship. His current research concentrates on numerical simulation of multiphase flow and heat and mass transfer related to energy and power engineering. He has been serving as member of the International Information Center for Multiphase Flow (ICEM), senior member of the International Association of Computer Science and Information Technology (IACSIT) and member of Japan Society of Chemical Engineering. He serves in the editorial boards of the Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics, Modeling and Simulation, as well as referees for many international journals.
Professor Eduard Babulak is accomplished international scholar, researcher, consultant, educator, professional engineer and polyglot, with more than thirty years of experience. He served as Editor, reviewer, Conference Chair, has successfully published, his research was cited by scholars all over the world. He served as Chair of the IEEE Vancouver Ethics, Professional and Conference Committee. He was Invited Speaker at the University of Cambridge, MIT, University of Surrey, Purdue University, Penn State, Yokohama National University & University of Electro Communications in Tokyo, Japan, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Sungkyunkwan University in Korea, Czech Technical University, Graz University of Technology, Austria, and other prestigious academic institutions worldwide. His academic and engineering work was recognized internationally by the Engineering Council in UK, the European Federation of Engineers and credited by the Ontario Society of Professional Engineers and APEG in British Columbia in Canada. He was awarded higher postdoctoral degree DOCENT - Doctor of Science (D.Sc.) in the Czech Republic, Ph.D., M.Sc., and High National Certificate (HNC) diplomas in the United Kingdom, as well as, the Diploma Engineer (MSc and B.Sc. ) in Electrical Engineering in Slovakia. He is Fellow of the Royal Society RSA, London, UK; Chartered Fellow, Mentor and Member of the ELITE Group of the British Computer Society, London, UK; 2013-2014 Invited Panel Member for the DoD & National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program, USA; Expert Consultant for HORIZON 2020 & CORDIS FP6 - FP7 European Commission, Brussellex, Belgium; Mentor and Senior Member of the IEEE and ACM, USA; Nominated Fellow of the Institution of Engineering and Technology, London, UK and Distinguished Member of the ACM, USA; Chartered Member of the IET, London, UK; His biography was cited in the Cambridge Blue Book, Cambridge Index of Biographies and number of issues of Who’s Who.
Nowadays, a lot of resources such as raw materials, controlled laboratory and skilled scientist required in experimental work can be avoided by applying the Density Functional Theory (DFT) along with computational support. Significantly, the DFT enhanced the research field of materials science and engineering ranging from the simple materials system (e.g. atomic, solid and surface) to the complex materials system (e.g. interface, molecular organics and nanoscale materials). The DFT method, which basically applies the quantum mechanics, provides an essential fundamental knowledge of materials properties from the atomic and electronic level. In addition to their fundamental interest, the designing of new materials from ab-initio DFT method are also possible.Multiferroic is one of the potential multifunctional materials for applications in novel based devices including magnetoelectric memory, spintronic and sensor. Efforts to develop more efficient multiferroic materials provide new opportunities and challenges in this field. Existing multiferroic materials were modified to enhance their existing properties. One of the known multiferroic materials is BiFeO3 which has a great potential to exhibit excellent multiferroic properties at room temperature. In this work, the investigation focuses on the variety functional and physical properties ofA-side substitution in multiferroic BiFeO3 nanomaterials. The ab-initio calculations based on corrected LDA+U functional as implemented in plane-wave pseudopotential CASTEP code were employed. The possible crystal structure transformation, electronics (band structure and density of states) and optical (absorbance and dielectric functions) properties have been calculated. Then, the fundamental knowledge of physics and chemistry related with previous experimental reported data has been further discussed.
M. K. Yaakob is Senior Lecturer at Department of School of Physics and Materials Studies, Faculty of Applied Sciences, UniversitiTeknologi MARA where he has been since 2015. He also currently associated member atInstitute of Sciences, UniversitiTeknologi MARA. He received a B.S. from UniversitiTeknologi MARA in 2011. He received his Ph.D. in Sciences (Physics) from the UniversitiTeknologi MARA in 2015. His major research interests are on the computational and experimental studies of multiferroic perovskite oxides.His research is towards designing new multiferroic materials with multifunctional properties for applications in cross coupling (magnetoelectric, piezoelectric, piezotronics and spintronics) effects based devices.
Complex hydrides have been attracting much attention as solid-state fast ionic conductors since we reported the fast lithium ionic conduction in LiBH4 . The development of fast ionic conductors is important because of their potential applications as solid electrolytes in rechargeable batteries. We have worked on the development of lithium ionic conductors as well as sodium ionic conductors of complex hydrides. Na2B12H12, composed of the [B12H12]2− closo-borate anions, exhibits superionic conductivity on the order of 0.1 S/cm above its order-disorder phase-transition at about 530 K . The rapid reorientational motions of the anions, evidenced by the NMR and QENS measurements, play an important role in the formation of the cation-vacancy-rich structures in the high-temperature disordered phase. In addition, three-dimensional conduction pathways are formed in the crystal lattices. Na2B10H10 is also a superionic conductor displaying ionic conductivity of 0.01 S/cm over 380 K triggered by the rapid reorientational motions of the [B10H10]2− anions . From the application point of view, it is highly desirable to enhance the conductivities of Na2BnHn at room temperature (6×〖10〗^(-8) S/cm for n=12, 7×〖10〗^(-8) S/cm for n=10). In this study, wereportcombining Na2BnHn with NaNH2 and partial dihydrogen desorption are effective in modifying the conductivities of Na2BnHn. Na2B12H12 + NaNH2 shows the highest sodium ionic conductivity of 1×〖10〗^(-6) S/cm at room temperature in this system. In the case of Na2B10H10, the conductivity is also increased to 3×〖10〗^(-5) S/cm when mixed with NaNH2at molar ratio of 3:1. Moreover, the conductivity of Na2B12H12 increases to 4×〖10〗^(-5) S/cm by partial hydrogen desorption.
Dr. Matsuo has obtained his B.Sc. (1999), M.Sc. (2001), and Ph.D. (2008) degrees from Tohoku University in Japan. He worked at Kanazawa Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd. from 2001 to 2004 and Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University from 2008 to 2016. From 2016, he is an Associate Professor in the Department of Nanotechnology for Sustainable Energy at Kwansei Gakuin University. His main research interests are fundamental, physical and chemical properties of light-weight hydrides; especially hydrogen storage and fast ionic conduction.
In the recent years, pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) has paved a new way of synthesizing the nano particles (NP) of any material. This technique is a single step, simple, devoid of any hazardous chemicals, free from contamination and very versatile. The characteristics of NP can be easily tuned by controlling the laser parameters and the surrounding liquid. In this technique, a high power laser is focused on the solid target immersed in a liquid, normally distilled water. Within the focal volume of the laser, material of the target is ablated, and forms the laser induced plasma (LIP) of the target material. This LIP expands in the surrounding liquid, generating the extreme conditions of high pressure, high temperature along with the commencement of high speed shock wave. The interaction of the surrounding with the LIP ionizes and dissociates the liquid molecules. Under the extreme conditions of high temperature and high pressure there is a feasibility of formation the some of the unique phases of a compound e.g. oxide phase which are normally difficult to synthesize otherwise. The focus of the present talk will be on controlling the properties of the NP (size, phase and Surface Plasmon Resonance) of various pure metals as well as some of their oxides synthesized via PLAL by altering the laser intensity and focusing conditions on the target. Some of the applications of these metal NP will also be high lighted in this talk.
Dr Alika Khare obtained her PhD degree from Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India in 1988. After working as Scientific Officer during 1988-1989 at IIT Kanpur she moved to Institute for Plasma research, Gandhinagar, India and from there moved to Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India in 1995, where at present she is working as a professor in department of Physics. Her research interest includes Laser and photonics, laser matter interaction, Laser ablation, nano photonics, nonlinear Optics and instrumentation. She has published nearly 120 papers in reputed peer reviewed journals and few book chapters.
Aluminum zinc sulphide(Al2ZnS4) ternary thin films were successfully grown on glass substrates by solution growth technique (SGT).; the source of Aluminum, zinc and sulphur ions are aluminum chloride, zinc sulphide, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) concentrated ammonia solution and thiourea. The films were annealed at 300°C for 2 hours and characterized by UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 300nm-1000nm to determine the optical properties of the films. Optical transmittance was obtained directly by the spectrophotometer. Other optical properties were determined by theoretical calculations. The average energy band gaps of the films grown at two different temperatures are 3.63eV and 3.77eV for different dip times. The other optical properties have been reported. From the results, the wide direct energy band gap exhibited by the films reveal that the films are suitable materials as window layer in solar cells fabrication.
Si is an important material in semiconductor industry for fabrication of microelectronic devices. However, the indirect band gap of Si in NIR range limits its use in photonic devices. To tune the band gap and photoluminescence in visible range, the size of silicon particles is to be controlled to a few nanometer. This is often done through growth of thin silicon films sandwiched between layers of silicon nitride or SiO2 which are often not suitable for device fabrication. Here we shall be presenting the synthesis of Si nanocrystallites exhibiting tuneable visible photoluminescence by controlling the thickness of nc-Si:H films in nc-Si:H/a-Si:H multilayer structures. The structure show the strong photoluminescence at room temperature in visible range of spectra with peak wavelength depending upon the thickness of nc-Si:H layer. As the nanocrystalline silicon layer thickness was increased from 5 to 20 nm the photoluminescence spectra red-shifted with the emission wavelength varying as d2 (d is the size of the nanocrystallites), the characteristic signature underlying quantum size effects. We also observed long wavelength photoluminescence which are likely to arise due to radiative recombination via interface states resulted in the observed persistent photconductivity. These nanocrystalline-amorphous Silicon superlattice structures offer a convenient method for synthesizing embedded Si nanocrystals with controlled sizes and photonic signatures and can be integrated with electronic and photonic devices. These results will be presented in the conference.
Dr. Pratima Agarwal is a professor at the department of Physics, IIT Guwahati. She completed her Ph.D. from IIT Kanpur in 1996 and joined IIT Guwahati in July 2000. So far, nine students have completed the Ph.D> under her supervision and another 5 are underway. She has published more than 70 research papers in international referred journal
Nanotechnology has wide spread application in different fields, such as medicine, cosmetics and industry. Among the various nanomaterial products, cerium oxide (CeO2), a lanthanide element oxide, is widely used in industrial processing and biomedical applications. In the past few years, much work has been performed to explore the biomedical applicationsand toxicity of cerium oxide nanoparticles. However, the role of CeO2 in reproduction has been rarely studied. Hence in the present study, we examine reproductivetoxicity of cerium oxide nanoparticleson Wistar rat. AdultWistar rats (male and female) were injected with the different doses of cerium oxide nanoparticles intravenouslyfor thirty days.Results showed that theadult male rat injected with high dosages of cerium oxide nanoparticles (5 mg/kg body weight) demonstrated a decreased sex hormone secretion. All female rats attained normal pregnancies and produced healthy pups after 30 consecutive days of CeO2 NPs administration before being housed with male rats.There were nosignificant differences in pup numbers, sex ratio, weights, pup survival rates or pup growth overtime between the cerium oxide NPs and control groups. White blood cells(WBC), neutrophils countswas found to increase significantly in rat treated with at 5 mg/kg dose which indicate inflammatory response against CeO2 NPs. Liver and kidney function markers also significantly altered at 5 mg/kg dose as compared to control group.The study concludes that high dose of CeO2 NPs may induce toxicity which may lead to various healthproblems.
Dr Usha Singh Gaharwar is presently working as a Research Associate in Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi India. Her area of research are Nanotechnology, Nanotoxicology, Herbal medicine, Reproductive biology, Cancer biology and Environmental toxicity. She has completed her PhD from School of environmental Sciences, JNU, New Delhi. She has obtained her M. Phil in biotechnology from Jiwaji University, Gwalior, M. P. , India. She did her master in Biotechnology from A. P. S. University Rewa, M. P. She has published research paper in related field in national and international journals
Quite recently, nanoconjugates with dual mode properties are gaining increasing importance. With this, we focused on the synthesis of novel Au@CD nanoconjugates with both optical and fluorescence properties. Such nanoconjugates offer the advantages of biocompatibility, inertness and high stability. The CD counterpart was formed via microwave mediated synthesis while the Au counterparts were formed by hydrothermal mode of synthesis. We analyzed the antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential of the synthesized material. Candida albicans was taken as the standard microbe for the study. While CDs were found to be non-toxic, Au@CD nanoconjuagtes showed a MIC80 at concentration of 62.5 µg/ml. Microtiter, growth curve and spot morphology assay suggested the toxic nature of the nanoconjuagtes towards C.albicans. Additionally, cytotoxicty assay against HeLa and HEK293 cell lines suggeted the potential non-toxic nature of the nanoconjugates. Bioimaging studies suggested that the Au@CD particles are entrapped in the cell interior. The detection potential of the Au@CD nanoconjugates was studied against different analytes. Selectivity, sensitivity and interference assay was performed to determine the ability of the nanoconjugates as potential sensors. A high selective detection towards cholesterol was found. On treating with cholesterol vivid change in colour of reaction mixture from reddish to turbid white was observed. While a red shift in the SPR peak was observed with increasing concentration of cholesterol, quenching in fluorescence intensity was found. The study thus suggests the development of an enzyme free assay for cholesterol by the use of biocompatible and aqueous soluble Au@CDs nanoconjugates, thereby eliminating the need of costly and lengthy sample preparation protocol.
Dr. Eepsita Priyadarshini is presently working as a postdoctoral fellow at School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India. She received her PhD degree in Biotechhnology from AcSIR, India in 2017. Her research interest includes synthesis of engineered nanoconjugates and quantum dots, development of nano-based sensors for therapeutic and diagnostic application, biocompatibility and antimicrobial studies of nanoparticles. Her contributions in basic sciences have resulted in a number of publications in reputed SCI journals and patents. She has extensively worked on development of metal nanoparticles based sensors for waste water treatment.
We have fabricated highly dense layers of Si quantum dots (Si-QDs) with Ge core on thermally-grown SiO2 by controlling low pressure chemical vapour depositions of Si and Ge and their multiple stack structures with ultrathin interlayer SiO2 formed by remote plasma-enhanced oxidation, and characterized photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) from the stacked structures through the Si substrate. A comparative study of PL from coreless Si-QDs as well as Ge-core size dependence confirm that radiative recombination between quantized states in Ge core is a major origin of room temperature PL. And current-voltage characteristics through double stack Si-QDs with Ge core formed on p- and n-Si(100) after making diodes with Al and Au top electrodes, respectively, and Al back contact show clear rectifying properties at room temperature. With application of 1kHz pulsed bias in the forward bias direction, EL signals peaked at ~0.83eV were observed irrespective of pulse height in the range of 3~5V. In addition to radiative recombination between higher order quantized states in the Ge core, the direct bandgap transition in Ge core may be involved in the EL signals. To retard electrons for flowing out through the QDs, we have designed and fabricated a hybrid stack structure consisting of a Si-QDs layer with Ge core and a very highly dense layer of small coreless Si-QDs, in which quantization energy in small coreless Si-QDs is larger than that in Si-QDs with Ge core. As a result of this approach, the threshold voltage for EL was successfully reduced down to 1V.
Dr Miyazaki has completed his Ph.D. (1986) in electronic engineering from Hiroshima University. In April 2002 to May 2010, he was a professor at Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter in Hiroshima University. Since June 2010, he has been a professor of Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, and served a vice dean of Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University since April 2017. He was elected a Fellow of the Japan Society of Applied Physics in 2009. Since 2013, he has chaired the 154th committee on “Semiconductor Interfaces and Their Application”, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.
The heat transfer in low-dimensional materials is very important and intriguing phenomena containing the following non-trivial effects: The strong boundary scattering induced thermal conductivity reduction and the low-dimensional effect induced thermal conductivity enhancement. Understanding the underlying mechanism and building reliable models for such heat transfer are critical for the applications in advanced chip cooling, high efficient thermal electrics as well as other energy related nanomaterials. Here we present our work in recent years which targeted on the multiscale modelling of nanoscale heat transfer. The first principles calculation is on the electron scale. The molecular dynamics simulation is on the atomic and molecular scale. The phonon gas model based on the thermomass theory is on the mesoscopic scale. Bridge these scales we have developed a series of fundamental understanding and engineering applicable models, which enhance our capability to harness the energy flow in nanoscale.
Yuan Dong is a Distinguished Professor in School of Mechanical Engineering at the Hangzhou Dianzi University. He received a bachelor’s degree in Engineering Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering in 2008, and doctorate in Power Engineering and Engineering Thermophysics in 2014, both from Tsinghua University, Beijing, respectively. His current research interests include the heat and mass transport phenomena in low dimensional materials, novel interfaces and intelligent materials, which are investigated through large scale atomistic simulation tools.
Silica nanoparticle has found various application in the fields of ceramics, bioimaging, dental fillers and semiconductors. Silica nanoparticle can be found in mineralized (quartz) or amorphous form. Extraction of silica from mineral resources may consume exorbitant budget and energy. These inherent disadvantage of silica extraction from mineralized resources have prompted scientists to explore more sustainable resources such as agricultural wastes, such as, coconut shells, bamboo leaf and rice husk. Over the years, more studies have been centred on the optimisation of each governing parameters of silica nanoparticle production from rice husk. Copious studies have been undertaken to produce pure silicon compounds by acid and alkali leaching as well as modulating rice husk sintering temperatures. Extraction and purification of silica from rice husk must be tailored to the intended use of the product. Silica nanoparticle can be extracted in three forms; crystals, gels and powder. Modifying the stability of the solution by controlling the electrical charges can be used to modulate the final form of the silica nanoparticle. Polymerization or repulsion of particles can be fluctuated by decreasing or increasing the surface charges respectively. Various parameters such as pH and solvents can be used to alter the electrical charges resulting in the formation of silica nanoparticle of different characteristics. Although there are many studies reporting on various alternative ways of extracting silica nanoparticle with higher surface area, understanding how these variable effects the mechanism of silica nanoparticle formation still requires extensive work. This review focuses on variables affecting the silica nanoparticle formation from sodium silicate solution prepared from rice husk
Revathi Rajan is Senior Lecturer in Department of Diagnostics and Allied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences in Management & Science University. She received a B Sc. in Forensic Science (2009), MSc. Forensic Chemistry (2014) and recently received her Ph. D. in Forensic Chemistry (Nanomaterial) from Universiti Sains Malaysia. She won Gold Award in the International Invention and Innovation Competition (iTEX) 2016 for the invention of nanoparticle based fingerprint dusting powder using agricultural waste.