Re-engineering enzyme catalysts by chemical approaches including immobilization and chemical modification represents a simple but effective route. The unusual phenomenon that immobilized or chemically modified enzymes display higher activities than native enzymes has been observed in both single and multiple enzyme systems. In this review, some recent achievements in enhancing enzymatic activities by chemical approaches developed in my lab will be introduced. Especially, enzyme-inorganic nanocrystal composites including enzyme-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers and enzyme-metal-organic frameworks with high enzymatic activity and stability were presented. We proposed that these enhanced enzymatic activities and stabilities can be attributed to the well-designed specific interactions between immobilization nanocarriers and enzymes. The preparation of novel type of nanostructured enzyme catalysts and understanding the origin of enhanced activity and stability may provide new insights and inspiration to design efficient enzyme catalysts for practical applications