Coumarins are a group of phytochemicals that may be beneficial or harmful to health depending on their type and dosage and the matrix that contains them. Some of these compounds have been proven to display pro-oxidant and clastogenic activities. Therefore, in the current work, we have studied the coumarins that are present in food sources extracted from the Phenol-Explorer database in order to predict their clastogenic activity and identify the structure–activity relationships and genotoxic structural alerts using alternative methods in the field of computational toxicology. It was necessary to compile information on the type and amount of coumarins in different food sources through the analysis of databases of food composition available online. A virtual screening using a clastogenic model and different software, such as MODESLAB, ChemDraw and STATISTIC, was performed. As a result, a table of food composition was prepared and qualitative information from this data was extracted. The virtual screening showed that the esterified substituents inactivate molecules, while the methoxyl and hydroxyl substituents contribute to their activity and constitute, together with the basic structures of the studied subclasses, clastogenic structural alerts. Chemical subclasses of simple coumarins and furocoumarins were classified as active (xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin, esculin, scopoletin, scopolin and bergapten). In silico genotoxicity was mainly predicted for coumarins found in beer, sherry, dried parsley, fresh parsley and raw celery stalks. The results obtained can be interesting for the future design of functional foods and dietary supplements. These studies constitute a reference for the genotoxic chemoinformatic analysis of bioactive compounds present in databases of food composition.
In this study, the effects of whey protein based films on various properties of kashar cheese were examined. In the study, edible film solutions based on whey protein isolate, whey protein isolate + transglutaminase enzyme and whey protein isolate + chitosan were produced and Kashar cheese samples were coated with these films by dipping method and stored at +4 ºC for 60 days. Chemical, microbiological and textural analyzes were carried out on samples at 0, 30 and 60 days of storage. As a result of the study, the highest dry matter and total nitrogen values were obtained from uncoated control samples This is an indication that the coatings limit water vapor permeability. The highest acidity and pH values obtained from the samples as storage results were 3.33% and 5.86%, respectively, in the control group samples. Both acidity and pH rise in these groups, is a consequence of the buffering of pH changes of hydrolsis products which are as a result of proteolysis occurring in the sample. Nitrogen changes and lipolysis values, which are indicative of the degree of hydrolysis of proteins and triglycerides in kashar cheese, were generally higher in the control group This result is due to limiting the micro organism reproduction by limiting the gas passage of the coatings. Hardness and chewiness values of the textural properties of the samples were significantly reduced in uncoated control samples compared to the coated samples due to maturation. The chitosan film coatings used in the study limited the development of mold yeast until the 30th day but after that did not yield successful results in this respect. Key words: Edible film, Whey protein, Chitosan, Transglutaminase.
Background and aims: The goal of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of the overweight and obesity in relation to food intake in children between 6 to 17 old in Moncton (N-B; Canada). Methods: 263 subjects responding at the questionnaire containing items about the dietary habits of child. Results: 3.8% of the subjects are underweight, 80.6% healthy weight, 10.3% overweight, and 5.3% obese. By age category, the average of seven and eight year old is 42.1% and 39.4% respectively, which approaches the average found in the young autochthones Canadians alive outside reserve. The food frequency questionnaire reveals that the average daily quantities of food consumed do not differ according to categories. The overweight children consume more fried potatoes (p = 0.002) and the subjects suffering from obesity consume more instantaneous tea (p = 0.041). Paradoxally, the underweight children consume more butter (p = 0.010) comparing to of all other categories of weight. Conclusion: The frequency of consumption and the consumed quantity seem to be disconnected to overweight and obesity in children.
The reported incidence of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease continues to rise, and postmenopausal women are at greater risk than premenopausal women due to loss of ovarian hormone protection. Nutritional approaches can reduce the risk and debilitating effects of these chronic diseases. The consumption of dried plums (DPs) is reported to provide bone health benefits in a limited number of animal models, an observation that is supported by select in vitro models. As a prelude to a potential long-term study with DPs in postmenopausal women, we examined the effects of short-term DP consumption at low and typical levels of DP intake on 1) C-telopeptide, beta-cross-linked (CTX), a marker of bone resorption; 2) microvascular function as assessed by peripheral artery tonometry (PAT), and 3) changes in colonic fermentation products (breath hydrogen and methane). Twenty-seven healthy, postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to consume six DPs (~ 42g) or 2 DPs (~ 14g) per day for 2 wks (first half), followed by a 2-wk washout period and then crossed-over to the other group for 2 wk (second half). The pattern of changes in CTX in the second two-week period (no change or decline) differed significantly from the pattern in the first two weeks (increases in both groups; F = 9.26, P = 0.006), suggestive of a favorable trend in CTX reduction in those consuming 6 DPs/d in the second phase. No significant differences in CTX were noted between the 6 DP and 2 DP treatments when assessed independent of treatment order. No changes in two indices of PAT (Reactive Hyperemia Index [RHI] or Framingham RHI), or in either breath measure, were noted. The results suggest a potentially favorable long-term impact of DPs on bone health, but do not support the hypothesis that short-term intakes of DPs, when assessed with a crossover study design, can provide positive effects on biomarkers of bone resorption and cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women. Follow-up studies with a parallel-arm study design and a longer duration of feeding are warranted. Supported in part by the California Specialty Crops Block Grant program and an unrestricted gift from the California Dried Plum Board
Abstract. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and obesity are a global public health problem, which have reached to epidemic proportions worldwide. The morbidly obese patients have a significantly increased risk of developing related metabolic disorders such as type 2-diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases. Although rodents are the predominant models of human obesity, there are some important differences in physiology between rodents and man. Among these, the swine are emerging as a biomedical model and concretely Göttingen minipig (GM) might represent an interesting alternative because its similarities to human energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to assess the initial state of obesity development in a GM by means of a high-fat/carbohydrate diet. In this study, 14 male GM were become obese after a nine-month period of experimental diet. Registered parameters during the basal and model period included: biometric variables; abdominal adipose tissue quantification and distribution; lipid profile; plasma leptin, adiponectin, TNF-α, and GLP-1; and variables for assessing glucose metabolism. Finally, two animals were selected at random histopathology study. In the results, at model period, biometric parameters, abdominal adipose tissue and lipid profile showed a significant increase. No difference in fasting plasma glucose occurred, whereas fasting insulin significantly increased. The liver, the kidney and the pancreas showed pathological microscopic finding consistent with glucose metabolism derangement. We can conclude that the factors involved in the development of early insulin resistance appear to be changes in fat distribution in GM. Further studies are needed to determine the relationship with incretins and inflammatory molecules.
Nutritional disorders are one of the main causes of the development of chronic non-communicable diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases. Activity of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site led to radioactive contamination of the vast territories of Kazakhstan. Radiation can exert a potentiating influence on the traditional risk factors for these diseases. The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in East Kazakhstan is 792.8 per 1000, this rate for endocrine system diseases is 368.3 per 1000 population. The aim of our study was to assess the awareness about healthy nutrition and eating habits of the exposed to radiation population. The objects of our study were 455 residents of Abai and Borodulikha districts of East Kazakhstan region at the age from 18 to 51 years, who were descendants of directly exposed people. One hundred percent of residents of Abai district were Kazakhs, while 66% of Borodulikha district residents were Kazakhs, and 44% were Russians or Germans. The main sources of information about healthy nutrition were medical workers (46%) and media sources (television, Internet, magazines and newspapers) - 52%. Women more often received information from medical workers (53%), while men - from the Internet (58%). Only 23% of respondents regularly adhere to the principles of healthy and balanced nutrition. Ninety three percent of respondents wanted to receive additional information about healthy nutrition and to introduce good eating habits in schools. The increased adherence to the principles of healthy eating can level out the possible radiation effects among residents of Kazakhstan living in ecologically unfavorable territories.
The area around the former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) is heavily contaminated with radioactive fallout due to more than 456 nuclear tests conducted over a period of 40 years (1949-1989). A signifcant amount of remaining long-lived radionuclides have been identified around the SNTS area. The population residing in the area was repeatedly exposed to radioactive plumes and fallout that passed through their villages during the period of nuclear test site activity. Thus, the residents of this area have been continuously exposed to both external and internal radiation in the past and continue to be exposed to internal radiation due to the consumption of local food products. In this study we aimed to assess the degree to which local products contribute to the daily ration of area residents. To do this, we applied the previously adapted version of Food Frequency Questionnaire and added a block of questions on the origin of commonly consumed food products. We have identified that meat, potatoes (seasonal vegetables), eggs and dairy products constitute the bulk of food ration and are locally manufactured in 89.2% of cases (range 81/3%-100% depending on the product type). Additionally, the culture of bottled-water consumption is not commonly practiced and nearly 100% of water drunk originated from local water sources. This pattern of food consumption is particularly dangerous for vulnerable population groups (i.e., pregnant women, children under 5 and people with weakened immune systems) and further studies are needed to evaluate the amount of radionuclides consumed with food and water.
Yuliya Semenova has completed her MSc from the Iniversity College of London, UK and her PhD from Semey State Medical University, Kazakhstan. She is the Associate Professor of surgery department, Semey State Medical University. She has published more than research 20 papers in reputed journals.
In this study, the effects of whey protein based films on various properties of kashar cheese were examined. In the study, edible film solutions based on whey protein isolate, whey protein isolate + transglutaminase enzyme and whey protein isolate + chitosan were produced and Kashar cheese samples were coated with these films by dipping method and stored at +4 ºC for 60 days. Chemical, microbiological and textural analyzes were carried out on samples at 0, 30 and 60 days of storage. As a result of the study, the highest dry matter and total nitrogen values were obtained from uncoated control samples This is an indication that the coatings limit water vapor permeability. The highest acidity and pH values obtained from the samples as storage results were 3.33% and 5.86%, respectively, in the control group samples. Both acidity and pH rise in these groups, is a consequence of the buffering of pH changes of hydrolsis products which are as a result of proteolysis occurring in the sample. Nitrogen changes and lipolysis values, which are indicative of the degree of hydrolysis of proteins and triglycerides in kashar cheese, were generally higher in the control group This result is due to limiting the micro organism reproduction by limiting the gas passage of the coatings. Hardness and chewiness values of the textural properties of the samples were significantly reduced in uncoated control samples compared to the coated samples due to maturation. The chitosan film coatings used in the study limited the development of mold yeast until the 30th day but after that did not yield successful results in this respect. Key words: Edible film, Whey protein, Chitosan, Transglutaminase
The evaluation of breast milk intake is of particular importance for setting future breast-feeding recommendations and to investigate success strategies for breastfeeding promotion. Exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of an infant’s life is an important factor for optimal growth and health of the child. Moreover, the assessment of postpartum changes in ma-ternal body composition provides important information. In Morocco, this is the first time that breastfeeding practices and human milk intake have been quantified, and that changes in maternal body composition postpartum have been assessed. This study included 32 mother-baby pairs. The exclusive breastfeeding rate, intake of human milk and water from other sources, and the body composition of the mothers were measured at 1st, 3rd and 6th month postpartum by using the deuterium oxide dose-to-mother technique. Results showed that the exclusive breastfeeding rate was 33.3% at the first month, 26.7% at the third and 12.5% at the sixth. Mean intake of breast milk was 615.6 g/d, 741.9 g/d and 843.6 g/d at 1, 3 and 6 months respectively. As expected, there was a significant change in the mothers’ body composition between the first and sixth months. As a proportion of body weight, fat free mass increased by 13.4% and fat mass decreased by 33.4%. In conclusion, the rate of exclusive breast-feeding in Morocco remains low, despite advice on the benefits of breastfeeding, clearly showing a resistance to change the behavior of these mothers. Keywords - Breast Milk, Exclusive Breastfeeding, Maternal Body Composition, Deuterium
Dental caries and obesity are diseases related to dietary habits. To clarify the relationship between nutritional status (NS), caries risk, and the composition of the oral microbiota, eighty four children aged 59.2 ± 12.8 months, attending the Faculty of Dentistry - Hospital Dental College - University of Buenos Aires, for spontaneous demand were examined. They were classified by Body Mass Index Z-scores (WHO, 2007) with AnthroPlus software in adequate (A), overweight (Ow) or obese (Ob). Carbohydrate consumption frequency between meals/day (CH) and cariogenic risk (CR) were assessed. In order to perform microbiological studies, dental plaque samples were collected and seeded in selective medium for assessment of colony-forming units/ ml plaque (CFU) of Streptococci and Lactobacilli and Candida spp carriage. Fisher’s and Pearson’s test was used for statistical analysis. NS showed 46% of children A, 30% Ow and 18% Ob. Although CH did not differ significantly among groups (p>0.05), Ob presented less children with high CR (A:62, Ow:77 and Ob:50%, p<0.05). The number of CFU of Streptococci of the mutans group did not differ significantly, but CFU of Lactobacillus acidophilus was reduced in Ob (Ob.2241±1586 vs A:3700±1710 and Ow:2715±1793, p<0.05). Candida spp strains were isolated from dental plaque of (% ): 52 of A, 33 Ow and 0 Ob children (Fisher’s test, p=0.0107), regardless the presence of caries. Thus, these results suggest an association among NS, diet and microbiology composition of dental biofilm that leads to a negative relationship between obesity and caries risk.
Patricia N. Rodriguez is biochemist and has completed his PhD from University of Buenos Aires. Actually she is Associates Professor of the department of General and Oral Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. She is the director of the project: “Relationship between body composition, caries, salivary flow and oral microbiota in children. An ecological perspective”, granted by the University of Buenos Aires (UBACyT 20720130100017BA). She has published 28 papers in reputed journals.
BACKGROUND: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a metabolic disorder in which blood levels of phenylalanine (Phe) is extremely high because of lack of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. Casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP) is a natural peptide, released in whey during cheese making by the action of the enzyme chymosin. CGMP in its pure form does not contain Phe and this makes it nutritionally suitable as part of the diet for patients with PKU when supplemented with sufficient amount of tyrosine, tryptophan, histidine, arginine, methionine, lysine and leucine. One of the main purposes of this study was to investigate the influence of the following biomarkers when comparing the absorption of CGMP versus synthetic, free amino acids (AA): Ghrelin, glucose, insulin, Peptide-Tyrosine-Tyrosine (PYY), Cholecystokinin (CCK), Glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) and Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN). Lacprodan® CGMP-20 is the name of the product used in this study. METHODS: Patients (7 females, 1 male, age 15-48 (mean 33.25 + Standard deviation (SD) 11.21), weight 47-85 kg (mean 72.8 + SD 15.9) were asked to come in to clinic in the morning, fasting. They had been selected from the Kennedy Centre database from the following criteria: well treated from birth, age >15, and classical PKU. All patients had 4 identical visits in randomized order and had a new drink mixture (DM 1-4) at every visit, containing CGMP or AA. The four DM were designed as follows: DM1:100 % CGMP, DM2:100 % AA (=DM1), DM3:78.4 % CGMP+19.6 % AA, DM4:100 % AA (=DM3). Ghrelin was measured at time 0 (fasting) right before eating the meal), 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 minutes after the meal. The rest of the biomarkers were measured at time 0 and 240 minutes. RESULTS: None of the seven nutritional parameters showed a significant change from baseline (time 0) to 240 min: DM1: Ghrelin (p= 0.454), glucose (p= 0.334), insulin (p= 0,563), PYY (p= 0,981), CCK (p= 0.523), GLP-1 (p= 0.871) and BUN (p= 0.260). DM2: Ghrelin (p= 0.180), glucose (p= 0.935), insulin (p= 0.726), PYY (p= 1.000), CCK (p= 0.910), GLP-1 (p= 0.420) and BUN (p= 0.800). DM3: Ghrelin (p= 0.473), glucose (p= 0.071), insulin (p= 0.484), PYY (p= 0.382), CCK (p= 0.620), GLP-1 (p= 0.131) and BUN (p= 0.937). DM4 Ghrelin (p= 0.986), glucose (p= 0.906), insulin (p= 0.537), PYY (p= 0.985), CCK (p= 0.297), GLP-1 (p= 0.068) and BUN (p= 0.991). DISCUSSION: None of the selected biomarkers did significantly change from time 0 to 240 min after a meal.
Candida antarctica B (CALB), Rhizomucor miehei (RML) and Thermomyces lanuginosus (TLL) lipases were immobilized on octadecyl methacylate (OM) or octadecyl methacrylate (OMC) beads. Their specific activities and regioselectivities were studied in the synthesis of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) partial glycerides, being lipids with nutraceutical properties. This study shows a new example of how the immobilization of lipases in different supports may permit the tuning of their catalytic properties, even if only the support is changed. In the synthesis of partial glycerides of CLA via direct acylation of glycerol, Novozym® 435 is the most active biocatalysts among the commercial ones, clearly improving the results obtained using Lipozyme® RM IM. However, the laboratory preparation OM-RML is the most suitable biocatalyst for this reaction. In this case, not only a higher activity and lower activation energy for the reaction is observed, but also it is the most regioselective biocatalyst towards the sn-1,3 regioisomer. RML is adequate for use in human foods, and it can be added directly to food products. The supports utilized also got the GRAS certificate. That way, this biocatalyst may be implemented to selectively produce partial glycerides of CLA to be used in human food. (C.M. Verdasco-Martin et al, Food Chemistry, 245, 39-46, 2018) Granted by MINECO of Spanish Government (CTQ2013-41507-R and CTQ2017-86170-R), and the Community of Madrid (S2013/ABI-2783, “INSPIRA1-CM”) and Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional.
Carlos M. Verdasco-Martín got a bachelor in Chemical Engineering and Master Degree in the Autonomous University of Madrid. Since 2014, He is doing his PhD in the group of Biocatalysis and Bioenergy at the Institute of Catalysis and Petroleochemistry of CSIC in Madrid, under the direction of Dr. Otero. in the blue biotechnology; also he applies the general principles of applied biocatalysis and chemical engineering to the implementation of selective synthesis of structured lipids and phospholipids and biocomponents extraction from algae