In few decades acidic land has become worldwide problem and it is estimated about 70 % of cultivable lands is acidic which is further increasing.Manganese (Mn) is the 12 most abundant elements, will become more available to the plants at low pH (acidic soil) causing its toxicity in plants. Therefore, Mn toxicity is a big problem with acid or poorly drained where pH is less than 5.Rice is a staple crop for major population of world.As a tropical and subtropical plant species, rice is known as somewhat tolerant to higher concentration of Mn.To unravel Mn‐toxicity responses in rice leaf, we studied the change in protein profile induced by higher concentration of (1.5mM) Mn by performing proteomics study.Our results showed down regulation of differentially expressed proteins associated with signal transduction, RNA processing, translation, protein processing, redox homeostasis, photosynthesis, photorespiration, and metabolisms of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. Down regulation of Oxygen-evolving complex protein 1 of the protein and Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase signify damage to PSII under Mn stress. Excess of Mn altered RUBISCO kinetics by downregulating Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit and PAP 3. Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) protein and Os06g0114000 protein which plays an important role in protein folding was found to be downregulated.Accompanied by downregulation of photosynthetic proteins , there is decrease in abundance of Carbohydrate metabolism enzymes including Hydrolase, Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, Putative transketolase and Isocitrate Dehydrogenase which suggest that carbohydrate metabolism is also susceptible to Mn stress. Protein metabolism was also found to be hampered by the induction of Mn toxicity. PPIase was found to be downregulated, signifying the misfolding of several proteins was effected by Mn toxicity.Peroxidase has a important role in scavenging ROS was found to be upregulated when plants were exposed to Mn stress. The upregulation of Nucleic acid-binding proteins may play an important role in regulating the various enzymes in response to Mn toxicity by modifying the translation and post-transcription of RNA.Most of the protein were found to be chloroplastic and mitochondrial suggesting Mn toxicity is causing significant damage to chloroplast and mitochondria.
Professor Olga Volkova has completed herDoctoral and PhD degrees from ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia.She is a dean of Food Biotechlologies and EngeneeringFaculty of ITMO University. She has published more than 55 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of repute.
Vitammin D3 is a seco-steroid that has been shown to have an antidepressant effect in preclinical and clinical studies. We carried out a time-dependent targeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics profiling analysis combined with a quantitative based on in vivo 15N metabolic labeling proteome comparison of Vitamin D3- and vehicle-treated rats. The metabolomics and proteomics datasets were used to further elucidate Vitamin D3’s mode of action on the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic and glutamatergic systems. In addition, myelin basic protein levels were analyzed by Western Blot. It was found altered GABA, glutamate and glutamine metabolite levels and ratios as well as increased levels of putrescine and serine – 2 positive modulators of the NMDAR. In addition, GABA receptor (GABAR) protein levels were reduced, whereas the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) subunit Gria2 protein levels were increased upon Vitamin D3 treatment. The significantly altered metabolite and protein levels further significantly correlated with the antidepressant-like behavior, which was assessed using the forced swim test. In conclusion and in line with previous research, our data indicate that Vitamin D3 impacts the AMPAR subunit Gria2 and results in decreased GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission leading to increased excitatory neuronal activity.
Mr. Sachin D Shinde is Assistant professor in Pharmacology Department at R. D. Bhakt College of Pharmacy, Jalna. Qualified TWO times GPAT exam. He has completed his graduation from Anuradha College of Pharmacy, Chikhali and Post Graduation from R C Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Shirpur. He has delivered many lectures on GPAT
The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of ferulic acid (FA) against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiac toxicity in rats. Isoproterenol challenged in a dose of 85 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) subcutaneously for two consecutive days in the experimental group resulted in acute cardiac toxicity as evidenced by changes in electrocardiogram (ECG) pattern and marked elevation of serum cardiac enzymes viz aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), creatinine kinase (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) also increases inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, acute toxicity effect was exhibited by disturbance in the antioxidant system as decrease in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) with the rise in activities of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO). Pre-treatment with FA at the increasing dose of (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg b.w.) orally for 28 consecutive days followed by isoproterenol injection for 2 days significantly attenuated changes in serum cardiac enzymes. Furthermore, histopathological evaluation confirmed the restoration of cellular architecture in FA pretreated rats. The cardioprotective effect of FA was comparable with standard drug treatment metoprolol. Taken together, FA demonstrated cardioprotective effect against ISO-induced cardiac toxicity by normalization of serum cardiac biomarkers, alleviating oxidative stress and augmenting endogenous antioxidant system
Dr. Joyce E.Idomeh obtained her PhD from the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. She is an Early Career Scientist serving presently as the Head of Department of Marine Environment and Pollution Control in the Nigeria Maritime University, Okerenkoko.
Oil exploration and waste disposal activities have been reported to cause water pollution in the Niger-Delta region. The indigenous bacterial community from a crude oil bunkering activity in Delta State, Nigeriawas investigated. Metagenomic analysis was performed using 16S rRNAamplicon sequencing. Oil composition of the water bodies were determined by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry analysis.Proteobacteria(75.8 %), Bacteroidetes(9.2 %) and Actinobacteria (7.5 %) were the most abundant in the water body studied and representgenera of known oil degraders. Methylotenera, Novosphingobium, and Flavobacterium were the most abundant having percentages of 16.1 %, 8.7 % and 3.2 %). Novosphingobium was most abundant in the early rainy and late rainy season (16.0 %; 8.3 %) than when compared with the early dry and late dry seasons (2.6 %; 7.0 %). Methylotenerawas the most abundant in the early rainy season and late dry season (20.2 %; 18.6 %) than when compared with the early dry and late rainy seasons (10.9 %; 14.8 %). Flavobacterium was most abundant in the early rainy season and late rainy season (3.7 %; 3.3 %) than when compared with the early dry and late dry seasons (3.0 %; 2.9 %). Actinobacteria had lower population observed during the early dry and early rainy season (1.3 %, 1.8 %).GC-MS revealed petroleum hydrocarbons (C1-C30) concentrations of saturated aliphatics, unsaturated aliphatics, and polyaromatics. The indigenous bacterial community included oil degraders with Methylotenera as the major genus which corresponds to the biodegradation of the oil contents.
Jessica Liana has completed his bachelor in Enviromental and Industrial Microbiology from Universidad de Antioquia, Colombia. She is currently doing her PhD in Molecular Biosciences from Universidad Andres Bello, Chile. She is a staff member of Bionanotechnology and Microbiology Laboratory from Center of Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology, Chile. She has teached Food's Microbiology and Enviromental Biotechnology in Universidad de Antioquia, Colombia and has worked as as Young Researcher in BioAli group, Universidad de Antioquia. She has teached Biochemical in Universidad Andres Bello, Chile. She has worked in scientific diffusion and has participated in Antarctic Expedition (ECA 55, 2019) with Antarctic Chilean Institute (INACH).
Since the green chemistry boom in nanotechnology, many microorganisms have been used as cell factories to produce multiple nanomaterial  being Escherichia coli as microbiology model widely used for this purpose [2,3]. In despite of it, very little is known about the bacterial biological processes or molecular events involved in nanoparticles biosynthesis. In this research we focused in the proteomic response of E. coli BW25113 in presence of lithium acetate and cysteine as precursor for sulfur metallic nanoparticles biosynthesis. Using electron microscopy, we demonstrated electrodense nanostructures inside and outside bacteria during biosynthesis conditions. DLS and absorbance spectra confirmed production of nanomaterials after 17 h incubation. Proteome analysis revealed ethanolamine catabolism, ion transmembrane transport, DNA repair, cytosine catabolism, polyhidroxyalcanoates biosynthesis and metallo-sulfur cluster assembly biological processes overrepresented during nanoparticle biosynthesis. This suggest the participation of this type of proteins in nanoparticles generation by E. coli. Ion transport has been previously associated with the biosynthesis of another metallic nanoparticles  and represent a fundamental step before nanoparticle formation. Transcriptome study reported positive regulation of iron–sulphur assembly systems in bacterial response to treatment with silver nanoparticles . This study corresponds to the first proteomic investigation of sulfur metallic nanoparticles biosynthesis with bacteria, it revealed that mechanisms for nanomaterial production depends of the toxic effect of biosynthesis precursor, it actives a signaling waterfall of reparation and detoxification system.
Ameneh Jafari is currently Ph.D. student of Applied Proteomics at the Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Siences, Iran. She received her M.Sc. degree in Clinical Biochemistry. Her research interests focus on the study of molecular mechanism and signal pathways of cancer using proteomics technology, as well as stem cell therapy in cancer tratment.
Exosomes are nano-extracellular vesicles secreted by most types of cells involve in signal communication and material exchange under physiological and pathological situations. Since exosomes have unique properties depending on the secreted cell of origin, they can be considered as biomarkers of various diseases, such as cancer. It is documented that a higher concentration of exosomes in the blood of cancer patients because of the more production of exosomes by tumor cells than normal cells. These smart extracellular organelles play an important role in many malignant processes, invasion and metastasis through autocrine/paracrine oncogenesis, transporting cargo contents, transferring a huge number of information molecules, formation multidrug resistance, modulating the immune system, and reprogramming stromal cells. Tumor exosomes express an array of proteins that disclose information regarding the state of the secreting cancer cell, while also providing insights to the progression of the recipient cell. The advent of proteomic technology based on current mass spectrometry coupled with improved purification patterns for exosomes, has provided a more specific and accurate analysis of protein profiles of exosomes. Cancer exoproteome open new avenues for novel biomarkers for early cancer detection, targeted molecular therapies, and drug development. This review summarizes current progress in proteomics research on exosomes for discovering diagnostic biomarkers to overcome cancer progression. Such information provides a new understanding of the role of exosomes in cancer progression, which may be helpful in the future to develop new strategies for cancer treatment.
The term foodomics was defined in 2009 for the first time as a new discipline that attempts to improve consumer well-being and confidence through the use of OMICS tools including genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics to assess several important aspects in food science and nutrition. The final aim of foodomics is to use the acquired knowledge to improve consumer’s health especially those related to food safety, food quality, monitoring genetically-modified (GM) foods and the development of novel foods. Other aspects of food science, such as food production, are included in foodomics as a discipline which can be quantified by using OMICS tools. In this presentation, we are clarifying the application of OMICS tools to promote several aspects in food and nutrition.
Dr. Rosaria Saletti is Associate Professor of Organic Chemistry at the University of Catania. She has participated to several national and international research programs. She has been member of the scientific or organizing committee of several meetings and schools and teacher in the Master in "Mass Spectrometric Methodologies and Applications". She is author of more than 80 scientific papers on international referred journals, and of about 160 communications at national and international meetings and has been serving as an editorial board member of several international scientific journals.
Voltage-dependent anion selective channels (VDACs) are the most abundant integral proteins found in the outer mitochondrial membrane, separating the intermembrane space (IMS) from the cytosol. They are a small family of pore-forming proteins (30-35 kDa) that allows the flow of hydrophilic molecules through the membrane. Since the IMS has an oxidative potential, we have investigated the oxidation state of methionine and cysteine residues. The present work is part of a research line concerning the structural characterization of the VDAC proteins. Recently, we have reported the exclusive cysteine over-oxidation of VDACs in rat liver mitochondria (rVDACs), which it is not present in other transmembrane mitochondrial proteins, by means of “in solution” tryptic and chymotryptic proteolysis and UHPLC/High Resolution nanoESI-MS/MS, procedure originally developed by us. In this work we extended the analysis to the human VDAC isoforms (hVDACs) obtained by mitochondria from HAP1 cells. Our results demonstrate that all three mitochondrial hVDACs, in physiological state, contain the methionines partially oxidized to methionine sulfoxide. Furthermore, cysteine residues are present both in the carboxyamidomethilated form and in the partially oxidized form to sulfonic acid. The peculiar behavior of Met and Cys residues in VDACs may be related with the location of these proteins in a strongly oxidizing environment and may be connected with the regulation of the activity of these trans-membrane pore proteins. The assignment of a functional role to these modifications of VDACs will be a further step towards the full understanding of the roles of these proteins in the cell.
Anna Shaliutina-Kolešová has completed her PhD in the University of South Bohemia in ČeskéBudějovice, Czech Republicand postdoctoral studies in Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, China. She is a scientific researcher at the Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters. She has published more than 27 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of repute.
In the current study we evaluated the cryopreservation effectiveness of common carp Cyprinuscarpio sperm when cryopreservation medium was supplemented with proteins. Semen was diluted with Kurokura’s extender composing 180 mMNaCl, 2.68 mMKCl, 1.36 mM CaCl2, 2.38 mM NaHCO3, and 10% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Cryopreservation medium was supplemented with purified seminal plasma transferrin (Tf), bovine serum albumin (BSA) or antifreeze protein (AFP) types I and III. Concentration of tested proteins was 0.1 µg/ml, 1 µg/ml, and 10 µg/ml. Motility and curvilinear velocity of spermatozoa was evaluated by theComputer Assisted Semen Analyzer (CASA). The percent of motile cells and spermatozoa curvilinear velocity of frozen-thawed sperm with supplementation of Tf and AFP III at all tested concentration were significantly higher compared to samples with no added proteins. Protective effect of BSA and AFP I was lower and dose-dependent. Thus, it is concluded that incorporation of Tf in the extender before freezing improve crypreservation of common carp spermatozoa whereas AFP III in higher concentration was more effective.