NREL's thermochemical biomass conversion research is focused on ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis as a potentially efficient and economical route to pyrolysis-based fuel precursors, fuels and chemicals. In this approach, biomass vapors are generated via fast pyrolysis (FP) and destabilizing vapor components (char, inorganics, tar aerosols) are removed by hot gas filtration with the conditioned vapors more amenable to catalytic upgrading via emerging and industrially available zeolites. We use a Davison circulating riser (DCR), a petroleum industry standard, for vapor phase upgrading while a close coupled pyrolyzer system produces consistent pyrolysis vapors as feed to the DCR. Concurrent upgrading catalyst development is focused on identifying and evaluating modifications to ZSM5-based catalysts that increase carbon content of the condensed product while also reducing catalyst coking and increasing deoxygenation activity. Catalyst screening for vapor upgrading showed marked differences in product composition with catalyst type while similar liquid product was obtained with both mixed hardwood and clean pine feedstocks using the same catalyst and process conditions. Ash, aerosols and char removal were additionally quantified for selected experiments. The work presented here will show the impact on product composition from pure vapor upgrading with a suite of zeolite-based catalysts. Two liters of CFP oil were produced from a modified zeolite. Subsequent hydrotreating produced 48% gasoline and 37% diesel fuels. These results will be discussed and compared with other work conducted in riser systems to produce biomass derived hydrocarbon fuels.
Dr. Magrini is a Principal Research Scientist and Group Manager in the National Bioenergy Center of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. She currently manages NRELs Thermochemical Process Development Group, which focuses on the development of catalytic approaches to biofuels production from syngas and pyrolysis. She has more than 25 years of research and management experience in academic, industrial and national laboratory environments and has over 100 peer- reviewed publications, 2 patent, and 130 presentations at national and international meetings. Her research areas include catalyst development for syngas conditioning, hydrogen production, and thermochemical fuels and chemicals production from pyrolysis liquids and vapors.
Depending upon its concentration, uranium present in various geo-matrices like water, soil, rocks, minerals is determined by gravimetry, titrimetry, spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, ICP-OES etc. Each of these techniques has its own advantages and limitations. The conventional extraction pellet fluorometric technique, from the time of Manhattan Project, is a universally followed technique with a detection limit of 10microgram/g of uranium. However, this technique is tedious, time consuming and involves large volume of toxic chemicals and organic solvents. The re-defined exploration targets and ever-increasing analytical demands all over the world has emphasizedto develop simple, rapid and sensitive method for uranium determination, without resorting to solvent extraction. Based on principles of green chemistry, intensive and outstanding work has beencarried outby developing 'Differential Technique in Laser/ LED Induced Fluorimetry (DT-LIF)'. Various fluorescence enhancing reagents are also studied to choose the best one.An overview is presented on recent developmentson this technique to geological matrices like silicate rocks, mineralized rocks, core and high-grade grab samples, various Nb-Ta, LREE and HREE refractory minerals (columbite-tantalite, monazite and xenotime, zircon, garnet), beneficiation products, yellow cake and in high purity materials like reactor grade UO2 pelletsincluding validating Certified Reference Materials. The significant analytical figures of merit and advantages of the developed green analytical method which makes this procedure novel includes its simplicity, fast sample throughput, broad dynamic range (from ppb to 100% levels), versatility and sensitivity, selectivity and specificity, freedom from matrix effects, eco-friendliness, cost-effective and direct applicability.Future possibilities include integrating DT-LIF technique with a flow injection kit for on-line analysis of uranium remotely in highly radioactive processed samples from a leaching plant or a fuel reprocessing facility.
Dr Manjeet Kumarhas completed his PhD from Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, INDIA. He is Former Head, Chemistry Group, Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research, Department of Atomic Energy, Hyderabad. He has over three and half decades of research experience on analytical chemistry, separation and quantification of elements present in atomic minerals, especially uranium, thorium and rare earth elements.He has published more than 50 papers in reputed journals and edited and published many manuals/ handbooks/ technical bulletin, atomic minerals glossary. He is recipient of DAEs Group Achievement Award-2016 for Excellence in Science, Engineering and Technology from Chairman, DAE and Director, BARC, Mumbai.
Bifurcation theory was introduced into nonlinear dynamics by a French man named Poincare. It was used to indicate a qualitative change in features of the system, such as the number and the type of solutions, under the variation of one or more parameters on which the considered system depends. In any system experiencing bifurcation and chaos, there are control parameters besides the state variables. The relation between one of these control parameters and any state variable is called the state-control space. In this space, locations at which bifurcations occur are called bifurcation points. The bifurcations of equilibrium can be one of the following: either (a) static bifurcation, such as, saddle-node bifurcation, pitchfork bifurcation, transcritical bifurcation or (b) dynamic bifurcations, such as, Hopf bifurcation. For the equilibrium solutions, the local stability of the system is determined from the roots of the Jacobian matrix of linearized system called eigenvalues. While for the periodic-solutions, the stability of the system depends on the Floquet theory and the roots of the Monodromy matrix that are called Floquet multipliers. The types of bifurcation of the periodic solutions are determined from the manner in which the Floquet multipliers leave the unit circle. There are three possible ways:a) If the Floquet multiplier leaves the unit circle through +1, we have one of the following three bifurcations, 1) transcritical bifurcations, 2) symmetry-breaking bifurcations, or 3) cyclic-fold bifurcations.b) If the Floquet multiplier leaves through -1, we have period-doubling (Flip bifurcations). c) If the Floquet multipliers are complex conjugate and leave the unit circle from the real axis, we have a secondary Hopf bifurcation.
Ahmad Harb receive the Ph.D. degree from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA, in 1996, in Electrical Engineering. Dr. Harb was the dean of School of Natural Resources Engineering at German Jordanian University (2011-2013). Currently, he is a Professor of Energy Sysyems at Energy Engineering Department, German Jordanian University. Dr. Harb is IEEE senior member. Dr. Harb is a founder and editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Modern Nonlinear Theory and Applications, (IJMNTA), USA. Dr. Harb has published more than 70 journal articles and conference proceedings.Recently, Dr. Harb published the second edition of Power Electronics Book, by Springer, 2018. His research interests include power and energy system analysis and control, renewable energy systems, modern nonlinear theory (bifurcation & chaos), linear systems, power system planning, and power electronics.
The gas hydrate deposits at seabed fall into a special category of gas hydrate resources. This study investigates the technical feasibility of harvesting natural gas from seabed hydrates using a new thermal method called Moving Riser Method (MRM). A mathematical model for heat transfer along the injection pipe in the MRM system was developed. Heat transfer from the injected hot water to the gas hydrate deposit was analyzed. This study concludes that with today's pipe insulation technology water temperature drops only a few degrees from sea surface level to the seafloor level in an insulated 800 m deep vertical pipe. The injected water at seafloor level will be hot enough to dissociate gas hydrate at a commercial rate with an affordable gas consumption rate. The gas production to gas combustion ratio (PCR) is greater than 4.The PCR increases slightly with gas combustion rate. Even the gas production ship stays at the same location for over 40 hourswith continuous injection of hot water, the water-hydrate boundary will still be within 0.9 meter of the hot water injection point. Therefore it is possible to use a gas collector of reasonable size (e.g., 2m in diameter) to gather all dissociate gas from the hydrate deposit. Result of this investigation shows that harvesting natural gas from gas hydrate at seabed with the MRM is technically viable, economically feasible, and environmentally safe.
Boyun Guo is the director of the Center for Optimization of Petroleum Systems (COPS) of the Energy Institute of Louisiana (EIL) and professor in petroleum engineering at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, USA. He received his PhD degree in petroleum engineering from the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, U.S.A. in 1993. His research interest is diversified including development of unconventional energy resources. Dr. Guo has completed numerous research projects sponsored by the US federal and state governments, Nature Science Foundation of China, and the oil and gas industry worldwide. He has published over 130 technical papers in professional journals and conferences and 10 books by professional publishers. Dr. Guo is an editor for several professional journals. He has received a number of awards from the oil and gas industry for his outstanding research work and services.
According to the physical meaning of the thermodynamic temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the thermal chaotic motion of molecules in states of an ideal gas: ε = 1,5kT. However, discrepancy between the values of the energy of the thermal chaotic motion of water molecules calculated for kinetic energy at 3173K is 39.54 ∙ 103 J / mol and experimentally determined by thermochemical data of 285.8 ∙ 103 J / mol (the value of 3173 K corresponds to maximum temperature of combustion of hydrogen in oxygen). An essential difference in the values of heat determined by two different traditional methods means that in addition to thermal motions of molecules, one should also take into account the motion of elementary particles, which is suggested to be considered the internal energy of a material object.Consequently, this requires, along with the translational motion of the molecules themselves, to take into account the motion of elementary particles of constituent atoms and molecules, i.e., elementary particles of "chemical individuals". In this respect, the new elementary particle, the carrier of heat - "the plotron", suggusted by us, brings clarity into the concept of "transfer of thermal energy" and allows to simultaneously consider processes at micro- and macro levels. On the basis of spectroscopic data for a different range of infrared radiation, we can calculate the total number Σxi of the contribution kT. It follows from the above formula that the temperature of the system is proportional to the frequency of "pulsations" of the elementary particle: Consequently, the equality implies that the temperature of the system depends on the frequency of "pulsations" of elementary particles -v- responsible for the thermal state: T=hv/Σxik=0.959∙10-11 ∙ v, where h /Σxi∙k = 0.959 ∙ 10-11К ∙ s is the temperature constant of the elementary particle - the carrier of heat The new fundamental concepts that we published (the transfer of heat by "heat generators", the possibility of forming "combinations" of elementary particles, the causes of "pulsations" of micro objects, etc.) have a high potential for further development in order to use these provisions for developing breakthrough technologies aimed at creating new materials and rational use of natural resources.
Bolysbek Utelbayev Chief Researcher of the Institute of Chemical Sciences named after A. Bekturov, holds the position of Professor of Chemical Engineering School at KBTU. He is Doctor of Science(Kinetic and Catalysis), Professor of Chemistry. "Honored Worker of Science and Education" awarded by Russian Academy of Natural Sciences. His exchange backgrounds: Institute of Organic Chemistry named N.Nesmeyanov, Institute of Physical Chemistry named N.Semenov(Russia Academy Science), Russia University of Chemistry Oil and Gas named Gubkin and International University named Yasavy (Turkey, Istanbul). Currently he teaches Industrial Catalysis, Inorganic Chemistry and Physical Chemistry. His group deals with the catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene. The aim of research work to develop selective catalysts of dearomatization gasoline from benzene using metals of 8 group. His team have been learning transmission of heat energy between objects and about elementary carriers of heat since 2014y. The results are given to Committee of IUPAC and declared on the 45th Congress of IUPAC in Korea(Busan) 2015, International Journal Science and World(2014 -17s)(Russian) and others.
There is plenty of hydro-carbon resourceenergyavailable on earth,for hundreds of years. The urgency of sustainable energy and transportation problem is frompopulation, global warming, and equitable access to energy for all humanity. The way forward is to help the developing world (90% of population that dominates the future emissions) with clean energy, rather than making the developed world clean (the 10% solution). This has to be done by appropriate technologies, consistent with sound business plans, and market based economy. This presentation offers the engineering and economic foundations of the above proposition. Case studies and example technologies from the author's group at Texas A&M University will be presented as specific illustrations.
Mark Ehsani is the Robert M. Kennedy Endowed Professor of electrical engineering and Director of Sustainable Energy and Vehicle Engineering Research Program and the Power Electronics and Motor Drives Laboratory at Texas A&M University. He has served in leadership positions of several IEEE Societies, including their governing boards. He has been honored by various international organizations over 140 times, including IEEE Field Award for undergraduate Teaching andIEEE Vehicular Technology Society Avant Garde Award. He is the co-author of over 400 publications, 18 books, over 30 US and EU patents, and has been a consultant to over 60 international companies and government agencies. He is a Life Fellow of IEEE and a Fellow of SAE
The paper analyzes the conventional interpretation of wind energy equations, proposes an alternate interpretation, and documents the results of actual testing which clearly validates the alternate interpretation. Validation testing has been done in wind tunnel testing in Houston, Texas and at Oklahoma Christian University in Edmund, Oklahoma. Various teams from the surrounding area including professional engineers, graduate students, undergraduate students, and high school students have submitted designs for comparative analysis. The designs have been varied with respect to both blade design and the number of blades installed. Several blade designs have been tested using a different number of blades to measure power solely as a function of the number of blades. The results of the testing support the understanding that the power of a wind turbine is primarily a function of the blade area rather than the conventional formula interpretation of the power being a function of the area the blades sweep or the swept area. This leads to the further conclusion that improved wind turbine design will yield substantially greater power both within the same swept area and at lower wind speeds.
Benton F. Baugh, Ph.D., P.E. has been President of Radoil, Inc. since 1979. Mr. Baugh serves as President of Radoil Tool Company, Inc., manufacturing a variety of offshore and oilfield products including Reels, J-Lay Pipelay Systems, Arctic Platforms, Rotary Valves, Deepsea Accumulators and general fabrication work. He served as Vice President and General Manager - Beta Division of Brown Oil Tools, Inc. from 1977 to 1979. He served as Vice President of Engineering, R&D, and QC at Vetco Valve Corporation from 1975 to 1977. He served as R&D Engineer to Area General Manager of Engineering & Production Responsible for engineering, R&D, production, technical sales, quotations, pricing, and QC on subsea completion systems. He served at Cameron Iron Works from 1964 to 1968 as Draftsman to R&D Engineer Engineering and testing work. He served at Camco, Inc. from 1963 to 1964 as Draftsman Design and detailing of miscellaneous downhole equipment, mostly packers. He served at Bowen Tool Company from 1959 to 1963 as Draftsman Miscellaneous drafting work on wellhead, fishing, and service tools. Mr. Baugh has 49 years experience in oilfield and subsea systems. He has worked for Baugh Consulting Engineers Inc., and Radoil. He is active in management, design, and consulting; and has received more than 100 U.S. patents
The grave challenges of oil pollution have been over stated in several environmental journals. The liability accruing to such pollutions have also been extensively discussed by several legal scholars. Interestingly, this discussions on responsibility and liability seems to take a lead and an end to the involvement of the huge multinational oil players in the pollution saga; thus, ignoring the role and liability of other silent parties. Firstly, Nigeria is replete with environmental legislations following the directions of its National Policy on Environment. However, this paper shall not delve into a discussion of these legislative provisions, nor their discussions as it concerns oil pollution and its attendant liabilities in Nigeria. Rather the paper shall examine the extent of liability of the Nigerian government with respect to enforcement of regulation against oil and gas pollution in Nigeria.
Chukwuemeka is a doctoral researcher of environmental crime Law at the Robert Gordon University, UK. An experienced law teacher of criminal law, business law and corporate governance. Chukwuemeka has authored several journals on environmental llamas and presented criminal law papers at conferences.
In practical terms, hydrogen is a promising universal energy carrier. The technology of hydrogen production has an unlimited raw material base. When introducing the technology of electrocatalytic production of hydrogen from water in the long term, it opens the possibility of obtaining thermal energy from a cheap source. However, the low temperature of hydrogen liquefaction, the explosive nature of gaseous hydrogen, put forward the problems of developing effective and safe methods of storing and transporting hydrogen. In our opinion, it is precisely these problems that hamper the development of hydrogen energy and technology, its use at the present time. According to the classification of the US Department of Energy, the methods of storing hydrogen fuel that use physical processes belong to the first group, and the use of physico-chemical processes is made up of chemical methods where hydrogen is in the form of a chemical compound or in a special combination with the medium. The first group includes the transfer of gaseous hydrogen to a compact state (gas cylinders, stationary massive underground reservoirs, storage systems in pipelines, glass microspheres or in liquid form in cryogenic containers). In physical - chemical methods, storage is used in the form of chemisorption by adsorbents (zeolites, activated carbon, hydrocarbon nanocomposites, organometallic sorbents, etc.) and in the form of chemical compounds (alonates, organic and inorganic hydrides, etc.). At the same time, the development of economically feasible catalysts for the decomposition of hydrogen-containing compounds, for example water, ammonia, methane, cyclohexane, polyethylene (or various types of polymers) into hydrogen and to corresponding compounds are promising in hydrogen energy. To the number of technology for the conservation and production of hydrogen from the compounds is the reaction of the decomposition of water by alloys of aluminum, silicon; hydro-dehydrogenation of substances on optimal catalysts. One of the most promising ways to conservation a lot of amounts of hydrogen is to store hydrogen in the form of naphthenes, obtained by hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons. We have developed supported catalysts with an active content of 0.5-1.0% based on ruthenium and rhodium to convert benzene and toluene to cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. This makes possible to create hydrogen accumulators for which a slight change in temperature and pressure in the system causes a significant change in the equilibrium of the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reaction. In addition, this technology allows to create the possibility of storing hydrogen and to develope of fuel cells to generate electricity. To store 2 kg of H2, cylinders weighing 33 kg are required, where the mass of hydrogen is about 2 to 3% of the mass of the balloon itself. When storing chemically bound hydrogen, the costs are significantly reduced.
Sharipov Rustam Hasanovich graduated from PhD in metallurgy in the Kazakh-British Technical University, preparing to defend his thesis. Works as a junior researcher in the TL "Perspective Materials and Technologies" at the university. From 2009 to 2013 he worked in the National Center for Complex Processing of Mineral Raw Materials of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the laboratory "Technology of Electrochemical Productions" as an engineer-researcher. In 2012 he graduated from the magistracy in the specialty "Material Science and Technology of New Materials" at the Kazakh National Technical University named after K.I. Satpayev
The oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II (PSII) in green-plants, where water-oxidation takes place, is the fundamental element of photosynthesis, where sunlight is transformed into renewable chemical energy. Prior studies led to the discovery of highly effective, molecular, homogenous catalytic systems of noble metals such as Ru or Ir. Nevertheless, their high cost, toxicity, and low abundance are unfavorable for using them as bulk water oxidation catalysts (WOCs).1,2 Hence, switching focus to environmentally benign, thermally stable, oxidatively robust, and redox-active Mn-substituted polyoxometalates (POMs) are of special interest, also due to the nature of the active center of PSII. Along these guidelines being inspired by nature with the principal aim to design new and efficient oxidation systems employing natural O2 as primary oxidant, a novel Mn-substituted POM was tested as artificial photosynthetic WOC[MnIII3MnIVO3(CH3COO)3(A--SiW9O34)]6-(Mn4POM), using the RuII(bpy)32+ (P) / Na2S2O8 sacrificial cycle,1,2 and was found to be active with higher turnover number and frequency than amorphous Mn-based oxides.
Dr. Rami Al-Oweini is an Assistant Professor of Inorganic Chemistry at Beirut Arab University (Beirut, Lebanon) since 2014. He graduated with a B.Sc. in Chemistry and Biology Minor in 2007, and with a M.Sc. in 2009 under the supervision of Prof. H. El-Rassy at the American University of Beirut, Lebanon. He earned his Ph.D. in 2013, supported by a DAAD scholarship, under the supervision of Prof. U. Kortz at Jacobs University (Bremen, Germany). Then he was awarded an ITM-CNR Postdoctoral Fellowship to conduct his postdoctoral studies under the supervision of Prof. M. Bonchio at the University of Padova, Italy. His research interests are mainly focused on the synthesis and structural characterization of novel inorganic nano-materials and their use in water treatment, corrosion control, protein crystallization, biological and medicinal applications, as well as homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis
Contemporary cities are facing phenomenal mounting levels of evolving risk and vulnerability, stemming, inter alia, from social polarization, the growth of poverty, urban conflict, terrorism, and, most recently, climate change. The greatest challenge for planning is how to plan our contemporary cities under the new circumstances of phenomenal risk. This chapter conceptualizes the contemporary city as a risk city. The risk city is a discursive social reality, which is founded on both 'ontological risk' and 'ontological lack'. It is articulated through three logics. The logic of risk directs and shapes public opinion regarding the main risk that the city faces. Thus, the risk city is about a struggle for social power over the 'meaning' regarding what is the immanent 'risk' threatening the city in a 'war of position' over meanings. The fantasmatic logic, as an imaginary scenario, masks the risk through offering alternative positive scenarios, such as the sustainable city, to the virtual threats that a city faces. The practice logic prescribes actual actions on the ground to fill the void. It functions to serve the fantasy and desire of the city and state apparatuses. This chapter, then, focuses on planning the risk city and identifies the planning approaches used to cope with emerging risk stemming from climate change. Based on empirical study of ten mega cities from the Global South and Global North, the chapter concludes that risk stemming from climate change and its uncertainties challenge the concepts, procedures, and scope of conventional approaches to planning our cities
Yosef Jabareen graduated from the Graduate School of Harvard University and from the Technion. Was a lecturer at MIT. Currently, he is a professor at the Architecture and City Planning at the Technion. His research focuses on the nexus and rift between urban planning theory and practices in two realms: sustainability and climate change, as well as, justice and urban rights. His recent book The Risk City presents a new theory regarding contemporary city plans around the world, and the evolving risk and uncertainties.
Africa is arguably the most vulnerable region in the world to the impacts of climate change. Impacts of climate change are already seen in increased food and insecurity and increased climate related disasters such as drought and flood. There is a pressing need to mobilize resources to address the continent's current limitations to deal with climate events, as well as resources to deal with future climate change. Technology development, transfer and diffusion are required to address the adverse effects of climate change and to enable Africa to achieve low carbon climate resilient development. While other continents are quickly advancing in technology development, Africa continues to be technology consumers. For the continent to tap into the fast moving technology world, there is a strong need for international cooperation and partnerships on climate technologies such as in green energy to help African countries to build resilience to respond to anticipated climate changes. Technology assessment conducted in Kenya as part of preparation of its national Climate Change Action Plan identified need for technology in sectors such as energy (Geothermal generation; wind power generation; hydro- electricity expansion; solar PV; land fill gas generation; clean coal; improved cook stoves; LPG stove substitution; renewable lamps replacing kerosene lamps; energy- efficient light bulbs; energy-efficient appliances etc); Waste sector technology (Methane avoidance from land fills) is gaining interest as waste to energy technologies becomes more available. To achieve these there is need for conducive policy and institution framework to tap the potentials for international cooperation and technology transfer.
Dr. Muok holds a Ph.D in Tropical Agriculture from Kyoto University, Kyoto japan and a Post-Doc in Renewable Energy and Climate Change from the University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom. He is currently the Director, Centre for Reseracn Innovation and Technology at the Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology, Kenya and Vice President of the Stolkholm based World Bioenergy Association (WBA).
Sn has potential as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to high theoretical capacity (993 mAg-1), nontoxicity and low cost. One of the challenges for the applications of Sn-based anode in LIBs is the volumetric strain of ∼300% created electrochemical cycling, which can cause significant loss in the energy storage through structural damage. To limit the structural damage during electrochemical cycling, we have successfully synthesized Sn@AB MSs (Sn@acetylene black microspheres ) via a galvanic replacement reaction of Zn microshperes in SnCl2 solution with acetylene black. The chemical composition, microstructure, crystal structure and surface property of the Sn@AB MSs have been investigated. The Sn@AB MSs are porous, and consist of Sn nanocrystals and amorphous carbon. Lithium-ion half cells are constructued using the Sn@AB MSs as electric anode. The half cells deliver a charge capacity of 480.8 mAhg-1 at a current density of 100 mAg-1 after 100 cycles and a charge capacity of 339.5 mAhg-1 at a high current density of 1600 mAg-1, which are higher than the corresponding charge capacities of 263.4 mAhg-1 and 277.3 mAhg-1 for the half cells with Sn MSs as electric anode. The lithium-ion batteries with Sn@AB MSs as anode can possess better cycle stability and higher rate capacities than those with Sn MSs as anode.
Fuqian Yang has completed his Ph.D from University of Rochester. He is a full professor in the Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering at the University of Kentucky, and has focused his research on the characterization and modeling of nanostructured materials, and energy materials. He has published more than 290 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as editorial board member of several journals.
The move towards a de-carbonised world, driven partly by climate science and partly by the business opportunities it offers, will need the promotion of environmentally friendly alternatives, if an acceptable stabilisation level of atmospheric carbon dioxide is to be achieved. This requires the harnessing and use of natural resources that produce no air pollution or greenhouse gases and provides comfortable coexistence of human, livestock, and plants. This article presents a comprehensive review of energy sources, and the development of sustainable technologies to explore these energy sources. It also includes potential renewable energy technologies, efficient energy systems, energy savings techniques and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce climate changes. The article concludes with the technical status of the ground source heat pumps (GSHP) technologies.
Abdeen Mustafa Omer (BSc, MSc, PhD) is an Associate Researcher at Energy Research Institute (ERI). He obtained both his PhD degree in the Built Environment and Master of Philosophy degree in Renewable Energy Technologies from the University of Nottingham. He is qualified Mechanical Engineer with a proven track record within the water industry and renewable energy technologies. He has been graduated from University of El Menoufia, Egypt, BSc in Mechanical Engineering. His previous experience involved being a member of the research team at the National Council for Research/Energy Research Institute in Sudan and working director of research and development for National Water Equipment Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Sudan. He has been listed in the book WHO'S WHO in the World 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2010. He has published over 300 papers in peer-reviewed journals, 200 review articles, 7 books and 150 chapters in books.