Objective: This metastudy will review and analyze all existing scientific literature that tests
or models the entourage effect with cannabinoids or endocannabinoids. The first scientific
use of the phrase “the entourage effect” was by Shimon Ben-Shabat, Raphael Mechoulam and
the rest of the team at The Hebrew University in their classic paper “An entourage effect: inactive endogenous fatty acid esters enhance 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol cannabinoid activity” in the European Journal of Pharmacology. The study showed the endogenous cannabinoid 2-
arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG) bound to both CB1 and CB2 more tightly when in the presence of
two endogenous fatty acids that do not activate CB1 or CB2 on their own. The increase in receptor response to 2-AG was observed both in cell-based receptor binding assays and in standard in vivo mouse models of cannabinoid receptor activity.
Overall, the entourage effect is the concept that certain lipids modulate the interaction between
(endo)cannabinoids and the cannabinoid receptors but do not independently activate the receptor itself. This biochemical model strongly suggests that a “carrier lipid” (such as terpenes) would increase the potency of any cannabinoid.
Methods: PubMed was extensively searched using multiple combinations of appropriate keywords. The number of relevant publications is extremely small (less than 10) so manual curation was feasible. Evidence of the entourage effect was evaluated as the presence or absence of its three components as defined by Ben-Shabat and Mechoulam and is presented in tabular form. Publications that propose molecular models are identified and discussed.
Summary: Despite the broad acceptance and use of the entourage effect as a concept the supporting scientific literature remains extremely limited. Most of our knowledge is based on the endocannabinoid system and little is known regarding the receptor-level mechanisms of exogenous cannabis. Additionally, multiple molecular models have been proposed but not yet tested. This work will summarize our knowledge into an understanding of how and why the entourage effect may work in humans and consider which mechanisms are supported. Additionally, the importance of human cultivation in cannabis evolution will be considered and extended to the pharmacology of whole-plant cannabis treatments.
Conclusions: Moderate evidence has accumulated supported the existence of a lipidbased entourage effect in the mammalian endocannabinoid system. There is little to no evidence that this effect is also observed with whole plant cannabis consumption although there are strong evolutionary suggestions that is could be present. Of course, the lack of evidence is primarily due to the lack of research and funding, not negative results (although those exist as well). The proposed molecular mechanisms of the entourage effect are feasible and, promisingly, have been observed in vivo. Furthermore, the selection of efficacious whole plant cultivars by humans could plausible product a set of compounds that act via the entourage effect.
Diabetes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting from chronic hyperglycemia have critical roles in pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Besides that the regulation of ROS production by mitochondria plays a critical role in neurons by affecting the homeostasis of mitochondrial function.
In this study, the effect of Syringic acid (SA) administration, a natural phenolic acid, on spinal cord and sciatic nerve in diabetic rats were evaluated. So biochemical examination, enzyme activity and pathological study as well as mitochondrial mass in the different groups were examined.
Diabetes was induced in rats by injection of streptozotocin. SA (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day) was given orally for 6 weeks in diabetic rats.
In SA-treated groups, blood glucose was significantly decreased. The SA significantly reduced sciatic and spinal TBARS levels which increased in diabetic rats.
There were not seen any alteration in catalase and superoxide dismutase activity in both tissues. This compound also significantly increased mtDNA/nDNA ratio (mitochondrial mass index) in diabetic rats. This value was reduced in non-treated diabetic group. These findings are also supported by improvement of histopathological damages (inflammation and demylation) of sciaic nerve in SA treated group in comparison to diabetic group.
According to these results, SA improved lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial mass in sciatic nerve and spinal cord and also reduce demyelination and inflammation in sciatic nerve of diabetic rats. Consequently, this phenolic acid could be considered in neuropathic complications in diabetes and proper candidate in novel approaches targeting mitochondria in these complications
Zahra Sabahi has completed her Ph.D. in Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. She is assistant professor in Medicinal Plants Processing Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Her research interests include antioxidant assay, DNA damage assay, oxidative stress and biological assay of natural products.
Introduction: Chuna manual therapy (CMT), one of the therapeutic modalities of Korean Medicine which is a kind of manual therapies, is well known among Korean traditional medicine Doctors (KMDs) for the treatment of TMD but the evidence for the effect of CMT is insufficient. Therefore, this trial is designed to propose a protocol to investigate the efficacy and economic efficiency of CMT on TMD, compared to usual care(UC).
Methods: This trial is a prospective, assessor blinded, two-arm parallel multicenter randomized controlled trial. Eighty patients with temporomandibular disorder, with numeric rating scale (NRS) above 4, will be randomly assigned to either the CMT or the UC group, with a 1:1 ratio. Participants will be recruited by five KM hospitals. Participants will be treated eight times for 4 weeks, and will be assessed for pain, range of motion, depressive symptoms, and quality of life. Adverse events will also be reported. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness, medical consumption data (quality of life questionnaire) will be used to assess indices such as the Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY).
Discussion: There were RCTs investigating the effect of CMT for TMD, however, evidence are evaluated as “Low”. For this reason, this trial was designed as a high-quality RCT protocol.
Conclusion: We expect that this trial will contribute new knowledge on the effects of CMT for TMD, so that an economically efficient way of treatment could be developed and standardized, contributing to provide more populations with the benefits of an effective and economic treatment for TMD.
Jae-heung Cho has completed his PhD from KyungHee University School of Korean Medicine, South Korea and obtained Korean Board of Korean Rehabilitation Medicine Doctor. He is an associate professor at Department of Korean Rehabilitation Medicine, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong. He has published more than 22 papers in reputed SCI(E) journals.
Filamentous fungi are widely distributed in environment and are frequent contaminants of food and animal feed. Spoilage and poisoning of foods by fungi is a major problem, especially in developing countries. The purposes of this study were to assess the chemical compositions, antifungal effects and antioxidative properties of essential oils obtained from Thymus vulgaris, Chamaemelum nobile, Ziziphora clinopodioides, Zingiber officinale and Cuminum cyminum against important food spoilage Aspergillus and Penicillium species including A. niger PTCC (Persian TypeCulture Collection) 5154, A. fumigatus PTCC 5009, A. flavus PTCC 5004, A. ochraceus PTCC 5017, P. citrinum PTCC 5304 and P. chrysogenum PTCC 5271. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The oils were subjected to screening for their possible antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The susceptibility test for the oils was carried out in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) using microdilution method.
The values of the essential oils in DPPH assay were as follows: T. vulgaris (450.11±5.23 µg/mL), Ch. nobile (602.73±4.8 µg/mL), Ziz. clinopodioides (1238.82±9.3 µg/mL), Cu. cyminum (1255.52±8.92 µg/mL) and Zin. officinale (5595.06±8.24 µg/mL). Our findings also indicated a strong activity against tested fungi for the oil of T. vulgaris (1250 µg/mL), followed by Cu. cyminum (1416 µg/mL), Zin. officinale (1833 µg/mµL), Ziz. clinopodioides (2166 µg/mL) and Ch. nobile (3750 µg/mL). This study confirmed the excellent antifungal and antioxidant properties of the essential oils, especially T. vulgaris, against foodborne pathogenic fungi. Owing to their strong protective features, these oils could be used in ethnomedicine as preventers of lipid peroxidation and cellular damage, and in food industries as preservers of foodstuffs against spoilage fungi. Also, they could be the candidates to develop new antibiotics and disinfectants to control infective agents.
Sepideh Abbaszadeh has completed her PhD from Veterinary Faculty of University of Tehran, Iran and postdoctoral studies of Food Safety in University of Tehran, Iran. She has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals.
Some species of the genus Candida, including C. glabrata and C. krusei, are intrinsically resistant to fluconazole and other azoles, and frequency of isolations of these two species has significantly increased recently. Combination therapy for fungal infections has attracted considerable attention, especially for those caused by drug-resistant fungi.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Menthe piperita L. in combination with itraconazole or nystatin against C. glabrata and C. krusei isolates.
Methods: The effects of Menthe piperita L. along with itraconazole and nystatin, were evaluated by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M44-A and CLSI M27-A3 methods. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was determined for menthol plus itraconazole and nystatin combinations using the checkerboard method.
Results: The mean of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of menthol, nystatin and itraconazole were 53.2, 2.30 and 1.50 mg/ml for C. glabrata isolates and 121, 1.08 and S0.38 mg/ml for C. krusei isolates, respectively. Menthe piperita L. in combination with itraconazole or nystatin exhibited the synergistic effects against all species of Candida tested. FICI values for Menthe piperita L. plus itraconazole and nystatin combinations ranged from 0.250 to 0.561 and 0.139 to 0.623 for C. glabrata isolates, and 0.182 to 0.750 and 0.188 to 0.760 for C. krusei, respectively. Conclusions: These results support the potential use of Menthe piperita L. as an anticandidal agent, and it can be used complementarily with other conventional antifungal agents.
Aghil Sharifzadeh has completed his PhD from Veterinary Faculty of University of Tehran, Iran and postdoctoral studies of mycology in University of Tehran, Iran. He has published more than 30 papers in reputed journals.
Indomethacin is considered a potent anti-inflammatory, but its undesirable side effects leading to discontinuation of drug treatment. One of the ways to reduce undesirable effects is the association of drugs with nanoparticles. Mesoporous silica structures are being studied by the ability of bioconjugation with different molecules, to be distinguished by the fact that it has the ability to penetrate the cell membrane and by the high efficiency in the incorporation of several therapeutic agents. In this sense, the present work aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of indomethacin incorporated into nanoparticles of mesoporous silica (NP+IND). To do so, the nociceptive potential was evaluated by formalin test and NO dosage. In addition, cytotoxicity testing and assessment of locomotor potential were included. The incorporation of indomethacin to the nanoparticle significantly altered the cytotoxicity of indomethacin from 125 to 37.5 μg/mL in peritoneal macrophages. In the evaluation of acute toxicity was observed absence of acute toxicity and the locomotion test excluded a possible sedative effect or motor disorder. The indomethacin dose of 10 mg/kg and NP+IND 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, similarly, significantly reduced inflammation in the formalin test; on the other hand the dose of 10 mg/kg of NP+IND was significantly more effective than the same dose of indomethacin alone. In the evaluation of NO in vitro, NP+IND was not able to reduce NO release at non-cytotoxic concentrations. In sum, the incorporation increases the anti-inflammatory capacity of indomethacin, however it is not related to the reduction of NO release.
Ricardo A Furtado has completed his PhD from University of São Paulo, BR and postdoctoral studies from University of Franca, BR. Currently, he is professor at University of Franca. He published 29 papers in reputed journals and this work is supported by FAPESP 2017/10241-6 and University of Franca.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second frequent neurodegenerative disease that is associated with intracellular -synuclein (-Syn) aggregation and ventral midbrain dopaminergic neuronal death in the Substantia Nigra of patients. Presently, there is no successful therapy for PD. The identification and characterization of phytocompounds to treat or cure PD has attracted the interest of the field community. In this research, we investigated compound, narcissoside;(NCS), which is isolated from Sambucus nigra flower (elderflowers) for is anti-Parkinsonian properties, using Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) models and their underlying mechanisms. We demonstrated that NCS reduced 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopaminergic neuron degeneration, improved food-sensing behavioral abnormalities, and reversed life-span decreases in a pharmacological C. elegans model. NCS also diminished α-Syn accumulation in the transgenic C. elegans model. Moreover, we found that enhancement of autophagy activity by promoting lgg-1 expression and down-regulation of the apoptosis pathway gene, egl-1, may be the molecular mechanism for NCS-mediated protection against PD pathology. Together, these findings support NCS as a possible therapeutic applications or supplements for PD treatment and encourage further investigations of NCS as a valuable anti-neurodegenerative agent.
Ru-Huei Fu has completed his PhD from Biochemisty group, Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University and postdoctoral studies from Academia Sinica. He is a associate professor of China Medical University, Taiwan.
Helminths parasites are a great constrain to livestock production industries in Nigeria due to huge negative economic impact on both the livestock and the farmers. Such negative impact includes; lost of condition of the animal thereby lowering their economic value, death of affected animals in some cases and high cost of treatment with standard anthelmintic drugs thereby depleting the capital base of the farmers. Phytochemicals derived from plant such as Combretum molle (R. Br. x. G. Don) Engl & Diels (Combretaceae) are used in traditional medicine to treat helminth infections. However, there is limited scientific knowledge on their efficacy against helminths. In this study, investigations of the chemical constituents as well as the anthelmintic activities of C. molle was carried out using bioassay-guided purification techniques. Powdered stem-bark of C. molle was extracted with absolute methanol and partitioned successively with solvents of different polarities (petroleum ether, chloroform and N-butanol). The aqueous methanol portion (AMP) obtained after partitioning was further purified chromatographically and analysed by spectroscopic means. Anthelmintic evaluation of the extracts and purified isolated compounds was carried out in vitro against Haemonchus contortus. Mass spectroscopic studies of the isolated compounds of C. molle revealed wavelengths of 211.00 nm, 227nm and 229.00 nm which are consistent with that of iridoid glycosides. Furthermore, the in vitro anthelmintic study of the isolated constituent (iridoid glycosides) revealed that the effect was comparable to that of levamisole (standard anthelmintic) with activity greater than 90 %. Based on the results presented in this work, Combretum molle offers opportunity of getting a new effective alternative anthelmintic compound(s) for the treatment of haemonchosis and other helminths infection in ruminant animals.
Simon Malang Kawe obtained a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) degree in 1997 and an M.sc and PhD degree in Veterinary Parasitology in 2008 and 2011 respectively at the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. In 2017, he secured a GOHO Life Sciences Foundation Research Grant and was at the Chiba University Japan for one year as a Senior Visiting Researcher. Simon is currently the Deputy Dean, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine as well as Head, Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Abuja. He has over 40 peer reviewed publications in international and local journals and has attended both local and international scientific conferences and seminars.
In this study, investigation of the antimicrobial activity of the total extracts, n-hexane, dichloromethane as well as the ethyl acetate fractions of some plants grown in Egypt including Avicennia marina (Forssk.) (Acanthaceae) Vierh., Clerodendrum phlomidis L.f. (Labiateae), Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq. (Verbenaceae), Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene (Verbenaceae), Tectona grandis L.f. (Labiateae) and Vitex agnus-castus L. (Labiateae) using agar well diffusion method to better consolidate the scientific basis for their traditional uses. The study was carried out against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria together with two fungi. Among the tested plants extracts, three plant extracts including L. camara, L. montevidensis and V. agnus-castus showed significant activity against the investigated bacterial strains. The extracts and fractions showed mean inhibition zones diameter in the range of 5.99-17.76 mm with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging between 4.88 – 2500 µg/mL against the susceptible bacteria and fungi. Qualitative phytochemical screening of plants extracts was performed to preliminary unveil the classes of secondary metabolites present in plants. The results indicated the existence of coumarins, quinones, sterols, triterpenes, carbohydrates, reducing sugars, condensed tannins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and/or saponins in all plants.
Ahmed Kamal El-Din Osman Mahmoud completed his doctoral degree from Department of Systematic Botany and Mycology, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany and is presently working as Professor in Plant taxonomy and Flora at Botany Depart., Faculty of Science, SVU, Qena, Egypt. He has published 33 papers and supervised several scientific thesises. He is also the Director of the Faculty Herbarium.
In traditional Iranian medicine (TIM) which is based on humors and temperaments a major etiology of diseases is retention of waste materials in body. This retention is due to bad nutritional habits like eating large amount of junk food and also to machinery style of life which inhibits assimilation of these harmful materials. Different methods have been introduced in TIM to get rid of retention, some of them like Venesection and enema have been known and revolutionized very well. One of cleansing ways in TIM is "induced emesis" in which patients are obligated to vomit; upon original references of TIM induced emesis not only prevent major and complicated diseases but also cure special ailments like kinds of headaches, visual weakness, dizziness, vertigo, anorexia, painful joints, elephantiasis and renal stones. Due to kind of waste materials patients are drunken different herbal emetics. Detailed explanation of well-known pioneers of TIM about all aspects of "induced emesis" is astonishing. Indications, contraindications, advantages, disadvantages, preparing patients and approach to side effects have completely described. Like a recent scientific step by step protocol all questions like when, how and in whom "induces emesis" is choice of treatment have been reasonably answered. Precautions be considered and actions must be done before, during and after emesis to reach eventual results have also been instructed. For example "Induced emesis" is prescribed in hot days of summer in two consecutive days. More prone patients for this method are slim with necks which are neither long and narrow nor short and fatty. Reapplication of "induced emesis" as prevention and treatment must be considered.
Fatemeh Nojavan completed her MD from Tehran University of Medical Science (TUMS) and PhD in Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM) from Iran University of Medical Science (IUMS). Now she is assistant professor in faculty of Traditional Iranian Medicine in Qom city of IRAN. In addition to teaching, she research in all fields of TIM specially bladder diseases. Along with the publication of papers and attending relevant scientific conferences and arbitration of Proposals and Papers, she is a member of editorial board of Health, Spirituality and Medical ethics journal which is published in Qom University of Medical ethics.
Yacon is considered as a healthy food with the limitation of storage, thus it is necessary to process yacon into product and establish the simple and representative quality standard. This study first developed and optimized the preparation process of yacon beverage, and then detected the content of soluble solids, fructose-oligosaccharide, and total phenolic acid in 5 batches of samples. Next, the antioxidant capacity of samples were assessed by DPPH, ABTS, SRSA, FRAP and MCC methods. Finally, we obtained the main indicatrix for quality control based on correlating analysis of component determination and efficacy assessment. As a result, total phenolic acid maybe the main indicatrix for quality control of yacon beverage, of which the content in yacon beverage should be no less than 6.4 mg/100 mL. Above all, the integrated quality evaluation strategy intends to provide a new insight for the quality control of yacon beverage and other complex-components substance.
Herong Cui has been completing her doctoral studies from Beijing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. She has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of repute.
According to the results of scientific research,the premature cellular aging triggered by the oxidative stress gives rise to many diseases like : obesity, diabetes, and other health complications. this oxidative stress caused by free radicals, chemical species, extremely unstable containing an electron not paired.This compound may react by attacking the more stable molecules cells of our body to match its electron, thus speeding up the cellular aging.
GM foods, meat from animals fed artificially, artificial food additives (preservatives, flavors, dyes, ...), excessive consumption of drugs and emotional stress is the main source of free radicals.
To address this serious problem of free radicals, we tried to have a solution by production of the nutraceutical products based on medicinal plants, rich in natural antioxidants that they have the ability to inhibit the free radicals by creating the covalent addition, thus inhibits the triggering oxidation chain reactions and stop their propagation.
The scientific research for the preparation of my theses in the laboratory of phytochemistry at University allowed me to understand the value of medicinal and aromatic plants. That is why I decided to enrich my university course by other training in the preservation and valorization of medicinal plants and the participation in the different national and international scientific activities. Then, I had the chance to complete my professional career by several national and international training in Entrepreneurship. This training allowed me to discover the path that leads me to the success in entrepreneurship and consequently, the success of my project.
The study evaluated the hyperglycaemia lowering activity of the methanolic extract, partition, column fractions and two isolated compounds from the fruit of Xylopia aethiopica in glucose-induced hyperglycaemic rats using glibenclamide (5 mg/kg) as positive control. The fruits were dried, powdered and was extracted with methanol. The solution was concentrated in vacuo to obtain the methanolic extract. The extract was suspended in water and partitioned into petroleum ether (60-80oC) and dichloromethane. Each solvent fraction was concentrated in vacuo to give petroleum ether, dichloromethane and aqueous respectively. The extract and the partitioned fractions were subjected to hyperglycaemia lowering activity. The dichloromethane fraction was further subjected to chromatographic separation in which kaurenoic and xylopic acids were isolated and their structural elucudation were carried out using IR, 1D- and 2D- NMR, and MS. The extract showed highest activities at 400 mg/kg. Dichloromethane and aqueous fractions at 400 mg/kg showed blood glucose reduction by 37.18 % and 37.96 % respectively which were comparable to that of the glibenclamide ar 5 mg/kg of blood glucose reduction by 38.97 %.. The isolated compounds, kaurenoic and xylopic acids, at 20 mg/kg showed blood glucose reduction by 51.09 % and 37.49 % respectively while that of glibenclamide at 5 mg/kg was 38.97 %. The results were subjected to ANOVA followed by Student–Newman-Keuls post hoc tests and p< 0.05 was considered significant. The study justified the ethno-medicinal claim of X. aethiopica fruits used in the treament of diabetes and showed kaurenoic acid as a lead drug.
Samson O. Famuyiwa has completed his PhD from University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana. He is a lecturer and a researcher at the Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria. He has published more than 12 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of reputed journal.
Numerous epidemiological studies have indicated that herbal medicines rich in antioxidant properties provide protection against oxidative stress induced diseases and disorders. Chandrapraprabha vati: an ayurvedic herbo-mineral formula is widely use for many kinds of diseases in the Ayurvedic medicinal field. But antioxidant activity of Chandraprabha vati is not reported. Therefore, evaluation of antioxidant activity of Chandrapraprabha vati is sustained to establish its high beneficial usage for diseases. Consequently in this study, in vitro antioxidant potency of Chandraprabha vati was evaluated.
Ten grams of Chandraprabha vati was extracted to 100 ml cold distilled water. The extract was filtered and then centrifuged. The diluted supernatant was used in assays and oven method was used to determine the dry matter content. Antioxidant activity of Chandraprabha vati extracts was evaluated in terms of 2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) using 6-hydroxy-2-5-7-8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) as a standard antioxidant.
Cold water extract of Chandraprabha vati contained 39.0 ± 0.9 mg/ml dry matter. The extract showed ABTS+ radical scavenging activity in dose dependent manner (1.6 ± 0.8, 7.6 ± 4.5, 15.1 ± 4.0, 29.0 ± 1.7 and 57.1 ± 2.1 % inhibition for 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, 12 and 25 µg/ml concentrations respectively). The results showed comparable radical scavenging activity; inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) of the extract vs standard was 20.9 vs 6.8 µg/ml. Further, the results showed ferric reducing (119.4 ± 8.1 µmole trolox equivalents (TE)/g sample) and oxygen radical absorption capacities (139.7 ± 6.9 µmole TE/g sample) of Chandraprabha vati. In conclusion, Chandraprabha vati possess potent antioxidant activity in terms of free radical scavenging, reducing power and oxygen radical absorption.
Background: Boswellia dalzielii is tall tree (more than 13 meters high), producing aromatic white flowers. This plant is commonly used in indigenous medicine across Africa against diarrhea, malaria, vomiting, inflammation and arthritis. The present study focuses on the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritis potentials of methanol extract of Boswellia dalzielii (BDME).
Methods: Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in inflammatory models induced by carrageenan, arachidonic acid, histamine, serotonin, prostaglandin and bradykinin. Anti-arthritis activity was measured using complete Freund’s adjuvant model. Intracellular and extracellular ROS production and proliferation of T-cells were evaluated using chemiluminescence and liquid scintillation counter techniques respectively. TNF-α and IL-1β production were assessed using ELISA and MTT assay performed for cytotoxicity.
Results: BDME revealed a significant anti-inflammatory effect by preventing the development of edema caused by carrageenan, arachidonic acid, histamine, serotonin, prostaglandin and bradykinins. For anti-arthritic properties of BDME, the results showed a significant reduction of the joint diameter and a decrease in pain in treated animals. The extract also showed a noticeable systemic effect, maintaining the values of the evaluated parameters close to normal in treated rats with an inhibition of joint destruction as shown in histopathological analysis. Furthermore, BDME exhibited significant inhibition of extracellular and intracellular ROS production. Still, the extract displayed significant inhibitory activity on T-cell proliferation as well as a reduced production of TNF-α and IL-1β. Conclusion: Boswellia dalzielii could be considered as a promising tract in the prevention and/or management of inflammatory diseases.