Stuttgart, city, capital of Baden-Württemberg Land (state), southwestern Germany. Astride the Neckar River, in a forested vineyard-and-orchard setting in historic Swabia, Stuttgart lies between the Black Forest to the west and the Swabian Alp to the south. There were prehistoric settlements and a Roman fort in the area of Bad Cannstatt (a suburb), but Stuttgart itself originated as a Stuotgarten, a Gestüt, or a stud farm, set up about 950. A wine industry developed, and Stuttgart received civic rights after passing to the counts of Württemberg in the 13th century. It became the principal residence of the counts about 1320, and after 1482 it was successively the capital of the Württemberg county, duchy, kingdom, and state. Prosperity in the 16th century was followed by a decline during the Thirty Years’ War (1618–48) and the French invasions of Louis XIV (1681–84), from which it did not recover until the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century caused rapid expansion.